Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences (OAMJMS) is an international peer reviewed journal published four times per year by the ID Design 2012/DOOEL Skopje on behalf of Foundation Macedonian Donor Registry (MKDR), Skopje Scientific Foundation SPIROSKI, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia en-US Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences 1857-9655 <p>All rights reserved.</p> Effect of Honey Variation on Blood Glucose Level in Pregnant Wistar Rats (Rattus norvegicus) <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">BACKGROUND: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">In addition to <em>Moringa </em>one of the food products that are often used as supplements is honey. Honey contains carbohydrates and content of antioxidants and other active substances needed during pregnancy.</span></p> <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">AIM: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">This study aimed to look at the effect of the intervention on the blood glucose levels of normal white pregnant Wistar strain of <em>Moringa </em>honey, honey plus <em>Moringa </em>or natural honey interventions.</span></p> <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">METHODS: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">This research method uses a quantitative research with experimental lab research type. With a completely randomized pre-test-post-test controlled completely randomized research design. The samples in this study were 24 white Wistar pregnant rats, divided into four groups, the control group, the honey group, the honey plus <em>Moringa </em>group, and the <em>Moringa </em>honey group, each consisting of six animals. The intervention was carried out for 20 days with initial BB measurements pregnancy (pre) and end of pregnancy (post). Data analysis used paired t-test and one-way ANOVA test.</span></p> <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">RESULTS: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">GD levels showed a significant decrease in GD levels in all groups at the end of pregnancy with a p &lt; 0.05, but a decrease in GD levels between groups did not show a significant difference at the end of the study, the control group (82.33 ± 8.98), honey (83.83 ± 6.67), plus honey (73.17 ± 10.92), and <em>Moringa </em>honey (73.00 ± 6.45) with a p = 0.065 &gt; 0.05.</span></p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>It shows that honey variation has the effect of controlling blood glucose levels during pregnancy.</p> Syarifuddin Syarifuddin Veny Hadju Rahayu Inriasari Copyright (c) 2020 Syarifuddin Syarifuddin, Veny Hadju, Rahayu Inriasari (Author) 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 8 T2 98 103 10.3889/oamjms.2020.5200 Identification of Active Compounds of Ethanol Extract of Citrus amblycarpa leaves by Analysis of Thin-layer Chromatography and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry as Bioinsecticide Candidates for Mosquitoes <p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>The use of active compounds from plants becomes an alternative to control mosquitoes nowadays and in the future because they are environmentally-friendly and do not cause health problems. <em>Citrus amblycarpa </em>is a local orange of South Kalimantan potential as bioinsecticidal, which commonly used for controlling mosquitoes. Therefore, research needs to be done to find out the benefits of <em>C. amblycarpa </em>leaves as bioinsecticidal.</p> <p><strong>AIM: </strong>The research aimed to identify active compounds contained in the extract ethanol of <em>C. amblycarpa </em>leaves as bioinsecticidal against mosquitoes.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Based on thin-layer chromatography test, there were some secondary metabolite compounds found such as terpenoids/steroids, flavonoids, polyphenols, and saponins. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) test revealed that there were ten primary components of the fraction. The components were Maragenin I (18,82%), 1,3-benzenedicarboxamide (12.28%), 2,3,8-trioxocephalotaxane (10.39%), aristolone, 2H-cyclopropa[a] naphthalene-2-one, noruns-12-ene (7.46%), palmitic acid, n-hexadecanoic acid (7.21%), stigmasterol, demecolcine (7.03%), alpha-tocopherol (5.88%), 2,4,5-trimethylphenol, pseudocumenol (4.21%), germacrene-D (3.45%), and 9-octadecenoic acid (3.36%).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>These active compounds possess biological activity as bioinsecticidal. It was expected that those active compounds in <em>C. amblycarpa </em>leaves could be applied for controlling mosquitoes by replacing the use of resistant temephos.</p> Kasman Kasman Nuning Irnawulan Ishak Poedji Hastutiek Endang Suprihati Anwar Mallongi Copyright (c) 2020 Kasman Kasman, Nuning Irnawulan Ishak, Poedji Hastutiek, Endang Suprihati, Anwar Mallongi (Author) 2020-09-20 2020-09-20 8 T2 1 6 10.3889/oamjms.2020.5207 The Effect of Celery Therapy and Abdominal Stretching Exercise on Pain Intensity in Adolescent with Dysmenorrhea at the Soppeng High School <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">BACKGROUND: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">Reproductive health is an important issue and needs to get more attention, especially among adolescents because adolescents are the nation’s next generation so adolescents should have excellent reproductive health because adolescents will later marry and become parents, so the quality of life of adolescents must improve to better direction.</span></p> <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">AIM: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">This study aimed to determine the effect of celery therapy and abdominal stretching exercise on pain intensity in adolescents with dysmenorrhea in Soppeng District High School.</span></p> <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">METHODS: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">This research uses quasi-experimental. A sample of 30 was selected by consecutive sampling that met the inclusion criteria. Samples taken are non-randomized pre-posttest one-group design with accidental sampling method. Data collection using numeric rating scale measurement tools. Data were not normally distributed by analyzing the Wilcoxon test.</span></p> <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">RESULTS: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The results showed that the characteristics of respondents for age were 14–15 years as many as 16 (53.3%). Based on grade level, the average respondent in class one also had details of 16 (53.3%). The average pain intensity before and after intervention, where the mean value + SD is 0.67 + 0.479–0.27 + 0.450 with p value (<em>P </em>= 0.001 &lt;0.05) which means that there is a difference in the average pain intensity significant before and after therapeutic interventions were given. Celery therapy and abdominal stretching exercise need to be recommended to be used as therapy to treat primary dysmenorrhea in young women at SMAN 1 Watan Soppeng.</span></p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Based on the results of research and hypotheses, it can be concluded that there are significant differences after therapy which means that the administration of celery therapy and abdominal stretching exercise 3 times before menstruation is more effective in reducing pain.</p> Sri Rezkiani Kas Nur Nasry Noor Muh Tahir Abdullla Anwar Mallongi Erniwati Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2020 Sri Rezkiani Kas, Nur Nasry Noor, Muh Tahir Abdullla, Anwar Mallongi, Erniwati Ibrahim (Author) 2020-07-23 2020-07-23 8 T2 55 58 10.3889/oamjms.2020.5185 Correlation of Age, Gender, and Employment Status with Quality of Life Glaucoma Patient <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">BACKGROUND: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">People with glaucoma sometimes do not feel the symptoms of glaucoma until the end of the stage, so the risk of blindness will be even greater. Glaucoma is a form of visual impairment, also the second cause of blindness after cataracts. However, in contrast to cataracts, glaucoma cannot be cured through surgery so that the blindness experienced is permanent.</span></p> <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">AIM: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">This study aimed to determine the relationship between the characteristics of respondents (age, gender, and occupational status) and the quality of life of glaucoma patients.</span></p> <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">METHODS: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">This study used quantitative research with cross-sectional method. Interviews were conducted on 250 glaucoma patients at community eye health centers. To determine age, sex, and employment status related to quality of life, the data were analyzed using Chi-square and logistic regression.</span></p> <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">RESULTS: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The age with p-value 0668 and gender with p-value employment status in 0237 and 0105 with p values were not related to the quality of life of glaucoma patients. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that the employment status with a significance of 0046 was a factor related to the quality of life.</span></p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>No relation to gender, age, and income with the quality of life of patients with glaucoma in Makassar Community Eye Health Centers in 2018 was found.</p> Andi Hardianti Nur Nasry Noor Lalu Muhammad Saleh Andi Nur Utami Iva Hardi Yanti Muliati Muliati Anwar Mallongi Copyright (c) 2020 Andi Hardianti, Nur Nasry Noor, Lalu Muhammad Saleh, Andi Nur Utami, Iva Hardi Yanti, Muliati Muliati, Anwar Mallongi (Author) 2020-07-23 2020-07-23 8 T2 47 50 10.3889/oamjms.2020.5182 The Improvement of Experiential Learning Model-Based Management in Public Health Center (Puskesmas) of Indonesia <p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Indonesia, to date, has been conducting ineffective and inefficient training model for health workers in Public Health Center. Suitable training model needs to be developed in accordance with the issue in the workplace or public health center. Experiential learning training model is one of the alternatives to emphasize experience and interactive based learning.</p> <p><strong>AIM: </strong>This study aimed to test the effectiveness of experiential learning model by improving the health center management competence.</p> <p><strong>METOHDS: </strong>This research was conducted using quasi-experimental research through pre-post-test control design involving 30 heads of public health center and 30 heads of administration of public health center from various health centers in South Sulawesi. The data were collected using pre-post-test with reliability α Cronbach coefficient of 0.870.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The research found that the competence of group taught using experiential learning and Metaplan (mean=75.06) was better than the competence of the group taught using direct learning method (mean=61.89). Thus, it showed that there was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups (p = 0.000). There was a significant and positive correlation coefficient between the participants taught by experiential learning and direct learning (p = 0.000).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>The materials discussed in the experiential learning were Planning, Implementation, and Assessment of Public Health Center Management, which was then resulting in increased competence of the participants of Education and Training for Health Workers of Public Health Center in South Sulawesi.</p> Andi Mansur Sulolipu Ridwan Amiruddin Sukri Palutturi Ridwan M. Thaha A. A. Arsunan Copyright (c) 2020 Andi Mansur Sulolipu, Ridwan Amiruddin, Sukri Palutturi, Ridwan M. Thaha, A. A. Arsunan (Author) 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 8 T2 16 21 10.3889/oamjms.2020.5176 Effectiveness of Audiovisual Media Intervention Aku Bangga Aku Tahu on Knowledge in Practices in Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Transmission in Adolescents <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">BACKGROUND: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">Educational media is a very important component as a means of interaction, one of which is audiovisual media. Health education through audiovisual media, I am proud I know (ABAT) is expected to be able to increase knowledge comprehensively about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).</span></p> <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">AIM: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">This study aimed to determine the effect of ABAT audiovisual media on HIV and AIDS knowledge of school adolescents in Makassar City.</span></p> <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">METOHDS: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The research design uses quasi experimental approach with the design of the nonequivalent control group design. Sampling using a random sampling technique, as many as 96 adolescents.</span></p> <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">RESULTS: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The results showed that the majority of respondents were in the age group of 17 years (49%), female sex (52%), and grade 12 level (51%). Based on the results of the Mann–Whitney U Test, there were differences in knowledge before and after the intervention of ABAT audiovisual media playback with a frequency of playback three times and once in the intervention group and the control group (p = 0.001).</span></p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>There are significant differences in adolescent knowledge about HIV and AIDS before and after the intervention. ABAT audiovisual media with playback frequency 3 times are more effective than once. Some comparison of counseling media is needed in order to better know the effectiveness of a media. Based on the research that has been done, it can be concluded that the effectiveness of ABAT audiovisual media on the knowledge of school adolescents can significantly improve HIV and AIDS before and after the intervention is given three times and one in Makassar City.</p> Nuramalia Nuramalia Ida Leida Maria Nurhaedar Jafar Aminuddin Syam Copyright (c) 2020 Nuramalia Nuramalia, Ida Leida Maria, Nurhaedar Jafar, Aminuddin Syam (Author) 2020-07-23 2020-07-23 8 T2 51 54 10.3889/oamjms.2020.5183 Attitude of Health Workers to the Utilization of Immigrant Patients Health Services in Tamalanrea Health Center <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">BACKGROUND: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">Types of health service utilization in Tamalanrea Health Center that can be used by immigrant patients are in the form of outpatient facilities, inpatient care, and home visits by health workers.</span></p> <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">AIM: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">This study aimed to assess the attitude of health workers toward the utilization of health services for immigrant patients in the Tamalanrea Health Center.</span></p> <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">METOHDS: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">This study used quantitative with a total sample of 59 people selected by purposive sampling. Data obtained through observation and distribution of questionnaires covering the attitude of health workers. The data that have been collected are processed using SPSS.</span></p> <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">RESULTS: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The results showed that the age of 26–36 years (44.1%) the most, the sex of the respondents the most is male (91.5%), the most recent respondent education was high school (44.1%), the country of origin of the most respondents was from Afghanistan (89.8%), and the length of stay in Makassar was at most for 5 years (28.8%). Of the 59 respondents, the majority stated that they were quite satisfied with the attitude of health workers in the Tamalanrea Health Center.</span></p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>It was concluded that the attitude of health workers toward the utilization of health services for immigrant patients in general has a statistically significant relationship. It is expected that the attitude of health workers can be maintained and further improved so that the utilization of health services by immigrant patients increases.</p> Nurul R. Qalbi Indar Indar Rahmatiah Yunus Copyright (c) 2020 Nurul R. Qalbi, Indar Indar, Rahmatiah Yunus (Author) 2020-07-23 2020-07-23 8 T2 32 35 10.3889/oamjms.2020.5179 Impact Evaluation of Healthy City Implementation in Makassar City <p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Healthy city is one of the health development strategies in Indonesia that has been started since 2007. Implementation of healthy city in Makassar has entered its 12<sup>th </sup>year.</p> <p><strong>AIM: </strong>This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the implementation of healthy cities based on aspects of the level of involvement.</p> <p><strong>METOHDS: </strong>This research method uses a qualitative design with a phenomenological approach where research departs from phenomena found in the field and then is developed in depth. Informants in this study were 13 people. Data collection techniques are in-depth interviews and documentation.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The results showed that the involvement of women in the implementation of healthy cities in Makassar was shown from the large number of female workers who were directly involved in various programs launched by the city government related to healthy cities. In addition, many women play an important role by being the head of a healthy subdistrict program in nine subdistricts in the city of Makassar. Whereas the political commitment indicator shows the results that the Makassar city government’s political commitment to the implementation of the healthy city is seen from the achievement of the Makassar city government which has succeeded in getting the highest award in the healthy city, Swasti Saba Wistara 4 times since 2007. After interviews and document review, the evaluation of the impact of the implementation of healthy cities based on women’s involvement and political commitment of the government shows quite good and significant results since the implementation of healthy cities.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>However, coordination at the government level is expected to be further improved, because there is still frequent miss communication between several Satuan Kerja Pemerintah Daerah in the implementation of tasks to achieve healthy city indicators.</p> Inayyah Nur Fitry Sukri Palutturi Ridwan M. Thaha Aminuddin Syam Copyright (c) 2020 Inayyah Nur Fitry, Sukri Palutturi, Ridwan M. Thaha, Aminuddin Syam (Author) 2020-08-25 2020-08-25 8 T2 12 15 10.3889/oamjms.2020.5175 Economic Status of Community Interest in Membership of BPJS Health in Duampanua District, Pinrang Regency <p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Starting from 2017 until 2019, the number of patient visiting public health centers Lampa is always more than the number of patient visits BPJS, it indicates that the public interest in District Duampanua, Pinrang Regency on BPJS Health membership is still lacking.</p> <p><strong>AIM: </strong>This study aimed to determine the effect of economic status on community interest in BPJS health membership.</p> <p><strong>METOHDS: </strong>This study used a quantitative research with cross-sectional study approach. The location of this research was in the District Duampanua, Pinrang Regency. The population in this study is the community in Duampanua District Pinrang Regency with 51.593 people. The sampling technique in this study used a purposive sampling technique with 100 sample size. Data analysis performed was univariate and bivariate with Chi-square test.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The results showed that there are influence of economic status variables (p = 0.016) to community interest in BPJS Health membership in Duampanua District, Pinrang Regency. The conclusion of this study is that there is an influence of economic status on community interest in BPJS Health membership because the higher the economic status of the community, the higher their interest in BPJS Health membership.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>It is expected that stakeholders in each village in the Duampanua District can find out the income of the community by conducting data collection evenly as proof of their worthiness of being members of JKN-KIS participants.</p> Sri Nurul Kur’aini Amran Razak Anwar Daud Anwar Mallngi Copyright (c) 2020 Sri Nurul Kur’aini, Amran Razak, Anwar Daud, Anwar Mallngi (Author) 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 8 T2 36 40 10.3889/oamjms.2020.5180 Implementation of the National Health Insurance Referral System at the Public Health Center in the Pangkajene Kepulauan District in 2019 <p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>The health service referral system is the organization of health services that regulate the mutual assignment of tasks and responsibilities of health services both vertically and horizontally.</p> <p><strong>AIM: </strong>The purpose of this study was to determine the appropriateness of referral service operational standards at the Kalabbirang Public Health Center in Pangkajene Kepulauan district.</p> <p><strong>METOHDS: </strong>This research method uses a qualitative with a phenomenological. The location of this study is in the Kalabbirang Public Health Center. The informants in this study were the Head of Medical Records Installation, the medical records installation staff of registration, doctors, and nurses. Data collection techniques using in-depth interviews, document review, and observation. The data obtained analyzed using the content analyze.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The results showed that the Kalabbirang Public Health Center, no operational service standards were governing the procedures of the Public Health Center when receiving patients to be referred back. In addition, doctors do not explain in full to patients information about the referral. The conclusion of this research is the implementation of the referral system at the Kalabbirang Public Health Center in terms of the requirements for referring to be in accordance with the national referral system.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>We need socialization to understand more deeply about the referral system and equate perceptions among health workers about the referral mechanism in the Kalabbirang Public Health Center.</p> Nurul Fajriah Istiqamah Darmawansyah Darmawansyah Muhammad Syafar Anwar Mallongi Copyright (c) 2020 Nurul Fajriah Istiqamah, Darmawansyah Darmawansyah, Muhammad Syafar, Anwar Mallongi (Author) 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 8 T2 27 31 10.3889/oamjms.2020.5178 The Legislative Role of Universal Health Coverage Achievement in Kolaka Regency <p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>The legislative role intended in accordance with the mandate of law number 17 of 2014 concerning the MPR, DPR, DPD, and DPRD in article 365 mentions three functions of the DPRD, namely, legislation, budgeting, and supervision.</p> <p><strong>AIM: </strong>This study aimed to determine the legislative role in the achievement of Universal Health Coverage (UHC) in Kolaka Regency.</p> <p><strong>METOHDS: </strong>This research method uses a qualitative with four informants selected by accidental sampling. Data obtained through in-depth interviews, observation, and document review. Data triangulation analysis is used to obtain data validity.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The results showed that the role of the legislature in the legislative function had not been carried out properly because there were no regional regulations issued by the district government of Kolaka who supports the achievement of UHC and will only conduct academic studies related to JKN, the budgeting function has been carried out well because of Commission III of the District Parliament of Kolaka has provided full support regarding budgeting in the health sector and the oversight function is also well implemented. Parliamentary budget oversight in Kolaka is carried out 3 times a year/per quarter by the DPRD in collaboration with the inspectorate, BPK and APIP by comparing planning with reality on the ground. It was concluded that the legislative role in the achievement of UHC in Kolaka was not fully functioning properly.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>It is expected to immediately formulate and issue regional regulations that support the implementation of the JKN program as a manifestation of the achievement of UHC in Kolaka and involve academic experts in UHC/JKN in formulating the regional regulation.</p> Rahmat Anzari Sukri Palutturi Aminuddin Syam Copyright (c) 2020 Rahmat Anzari, Sukri Palutturi, Aminuddin Syam (Author) 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 8 T2 41 46 10.3889/oamjms.2020.5181 Analysis of Factors Affecting the Unmet Need Incidence in Couples of Childbearing Age in the West Bulotadaa Village Gorontalo City in 2019 <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">BACKGROUND: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">Population that continues to increase is a big problem for countries in the world, especially developing countries. One of the problems in the management of family planning programs is the high level of unmet need for family planning in Indonesia. Unmet need is the number of couples of childbearing age who want to postpone pregnancy or do not want additional children but do not use birth control methods.</span></p> <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">AIM: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The aim of the study was to determine the determinants of the occurrence of unmet need in fertile age couples in the West Bulotadaa Village, Gorontalo City.</span></p> <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">METHODS: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The study design was cross-sectional with a sample of 146 fertile age couples selected by systematic random sampling. Data collection was made, using questionnaires containing questions from the research variables. Data were analyzed by multiple logistic regression analysis through the SPSS for windows program.</span></p> <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">RESULTS: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The visit of KB officers affected the unmet need with p = 0.032 (p &lt; 0.05) with OR = 2.893, and there were some variables that were not significant such as the age variable p = 0.766 (p &gt; 0.05), family income p = 0.189 (p &gt; 0.05), distance of family planning services p = 0.057 (p &gt; 0.05), and cost of contraception p = 0.632 (p &gt; 0.05).</span></p> <p class="Pa16"><strong><span lang="EN-US">CONCLUSION: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">It was concluded that the visit of family planning officers affected the unmet need and age, family income, distance to the place of family planning services and the cost of contraceptives did not affect the incidence of unmet need in West Bulotadaa, Gorontalo City.</span></p> Mayangsari Kau Andi Ummu Salmah Anwar Mallongi Muhammad Arif Tiro Copyright (c) 2020 Mayangsari Kau, Andi Ummu Salmah, Anwar Mallongi, Muhammad Arif Tiro (Author) 2020-09-08 2020-09-08 8 T2 94 97 10.3889/oamjms.2020.5323 Correlation Study between Elevation, Population Density, and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever in Kendari City in 2014–2018 <p class="Pa16"><strong><span lang="EN-US">BACKGROUND:</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> The incidence of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) has experienced rapid development throughout the world in recent decades. Indonesia was reported as the 2nd country with the largest DHF cases among 30 endemic countries. Dengue virus can develop properly based on certain regional conditions. The elevation is an important factor that can affect the presence of dengue vector mosquitoes. High population density contributes to dengue transmission by increasing the contact between infected mosquitoes and human hosts.</span></p> <p class="Pa16"><strong><span lang="EN-US">AIM:</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> This study aimed to determine the correlation between elevation and population density with the incidence of dengue in Kendari City in 2014–2018.</span></p> <p class="Pa16"><strong><span lang="EN-US">METHODS:</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> This research is an observational analytic study with ecological study design. Data incidence of DHF in 2014–2018, elevation and population density were respectively obtained from the Health Office of Kendari City, Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics Agency of Kendari City, Statistics Agency of Kendari City. The analysis of the data used in the study is univariate and bivariate analysis. Bivariate analysis using Pearson correlation test was performed.</span></p> <p class="Pa16"><strong><span lang="EN-US">RESULTS:</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> The results showed that the correlation between elevation and DHF (p = 0.014, r = 0.339) and the correlation between population density and DHF (p = 0.186).</span></p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> It can be concluded that there is significant correlation with positive direction between elevation and the DHF, and there is no significant correlation between population density and DHF incidence in Kendari City in 2014–2018.</p> Siti Nurul Ainun Istiqamah Arsunan A. Arsin Andi Ummu Salmah Anwar Mallongi Copyright (c) 2020 Siti Nurul Ainun Istiqamah, Arsunan A. Arsin, Andi Ummu Salmah, Anwar Mallongi (Author) 2020-07-23 2020-07-23 8 T2 63 66 10.3889/oamjms.2020.5187 Workplace Stretching Exercise toward Reduction Job Burnout among Workers Pt. X International, Indonesia <p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Occupational safety and health are health sciences that are applied through work and the work environment to obtain the highest degree of health both physically, mentally, and socially through preventive and curative efforts in the workplace. The emergence of work fatigue in workers is evidence of a decrease in bodily functions caused by both individual factors and the work environment so that precautions are needed.</p> <p><strong>AIM: </strong>This study aimed to see the effect of workplace stretching exercise on work fatigue in workers at PT. X International, Indonesia.</p> <p><strong>METHODS: </strong>This study used a quasi-experimental study with one group pre-test and post-test design. Respondents were 30 people selected by purposive sampling and met the study inclusion criteria. The provision of workplace stretching exercises was carried out for 15 working days and is given every 10 am after workers work for 2 h.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The mean of work fatigue before intervention (pre-test) is 454.8133 and the average work fatigue after an intervention (post-test) is 321.9133 so that there are differences in the average work fatigue before and after the intervention.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Workplace stretching exercise intervention affects reducing work fatigue in production workers of PT. X International Indonesia.</p> Atjo Wahyu Stang Stang Syamsiar Russeng Andi Ummu Salmah Nur Alam Dahlan Anwar Mallongi Muhammad Restu Copyright (c) 2020 Atjo Wahyu, Stang Stang, Syamsiar Russeng, Andi Ummu Salmah, Nur Alam Dahlan, Anwar Mallongi, Muhammad Restu (Author) 2020-08-20 2020-08-20 8 T2 7 11 10.3889/oamjms.2020.5134 Water, Sanitation Dan Hygiene Analysis, and Individual Factors for Stunting among Children Under Two Years in Ambon <p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Nutrition problem is a problem that is still a threat in various countries around the world, one of which is stunting that occurs since the baby is in the womb and in the early period after the baby is born, but only appears after the child is 2 years old.</p> <p><strong>AIM: </strong>This study aimed to analyze the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), and individual factors for the incidence of stunting in children aged 7–24 months in the slums of Ambon City.</p> <p><strong>METHODS: </strong>The research was an analytical observational study using a case control study design. The population in this study was all children aged 7–24 months who suffered from stunting in Ambon. The samples were 150 child with a ratio of 1:1 for the case and control groups.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The results showed that WASH (OR=2.7, CI 95%: 1.379–5.566) dan status Berat Badan Lahir Rendah (OR=5.1; CI 95%: 2.279–11.445) was a stunting risk factor. Meanwhile, diarrhea status (OR=2.4; CI 95%: 0.793–7.302), immunization (OR=1.4; CI 95%:0.622–3.260), and smoking history of household members (OR=1.1; CI 95%: 0.540–2.086) are risk factors, but statistically not significant. Maternal education (OR=1.0) is not a risk factor for stunting in children aged 7–24 months.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>The conclusion of this study is that the WASH condition and low birth weight status are risk factors for stunting in children aged 7–24 months in Ambon.</p> Uswatun Hasanah Ida Leida Maria Nurhaedar Jafar Andi Hardianti Anwar Mallongi Aminuddin Syam Copyright (c) 2020 Uswatun Hasanah, Ida Leida Maria, Nurhaedar Jafar, Andi Hardianti, Anwar Mallongi, Aminuddin Syam (Author) 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 8 T2 22 26 10.3889/oamjms.2020.5177 Risk Factors Analysis and Mapping of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Community Health Centre Tamalatea of Jeneponto District <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">BACKGROUND: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health problem, and in Indonesia, although TB control efforts have been carried out since 1995. TB is ranked 9</span><sup><span lang="EN-US">th </span></sup><span lang="EN-US">as the leading cause of death worldwide. The increase in the number of TB cases caused by risk factors triggering include a decrease in the immune system caused by HIV infection, nutritional status, education, sex, occupation, air humidity, house ventilation, temperature, occupancy density lighting, and contact history.</span></p> <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">AIM: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">This study aimed to analyze the relationship of nutritional status, contact history, and smoking to the incidence of pulmonary TB in Community Health Centre Tamalatea of Jeneponto District.</span></p> <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">METOHDS: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">This type of research is analytic observational with a case–control design with a total sample of 147 samples consisting of 49 cases and 98 controls. Data collection was conducted from August to October 2019. Data analysis used in the study was univariate and bivariate analysis with Chi-square test.</span></p> <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">RESULTS: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The results showed that nutritional status (OR=5.403 95% CI: 2.547–11.461), contact history (OR=13.971 95% CI: 3.807–51.262), and smoking (OR=2.782 95% CI: 1.370–5.648) are related to the incidence of pulmonary in Community Health Centre Tamalatea of Jeneponto District. TB officers are expected to intensify the home visit program, especially for pulmonary TB sufferers with a considerable distance from the community health center, with transportation constraints and relatively poor economic conditions so that the health status of pulmonary TB sufferers can be monitored properly.</span></p> <p class="Pa12"><strong><span lang="EN-US">CONCLUSION: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">TB officers are expected to intensify the home visit program, especially for pulmonary TB sufferers with a considerable distance from the Puskesmas, with transportation constraints and relatively poor economic conditions so that the health status of pulmonary TB sufferers can be monitored properly.</span></p> Irnawati Nur Nur Nasry Noor Andi Ummu Salmah Anwar Mallongi Hasnawati Amqam Copyright (c) 2020 Andi Ummu Salmah, Irnawati Nur, Nur Nasry Noor, Anwar Mallongi, Hasnawati Amqam (Author) 2020-07-23 2020-07-23 8 T2 59 62 10.3889/oamjms.2020.5186 Association of Gender, Triglyceride/HDL Ratio, and Physical Activity of Obese Adolescents in Makassar <p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Obesity may cause the increase of triglyceride and decrease of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. Triglyceride/HDL ratio is associated with metabolic disorders. Physical activity is one of the important aspects in preventing obesity. Gender is known to have a relationship with these factors, but it has been inconsistent.</p> <p><strong>AIM: </strong>This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between sex and triglycerides, levels of HDL, triglycerides/HDL ratio, and physical activity of obese adolescents in Makassar.</p> <p><strong>METHODS: </strong>This study used a cross-sectional design involving 93 samples of obese adolescents from three high schools. Measurement of triglyceride and HDL levels was performed by the Prodia laboratory, while physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questioner. Data analysis was performed with Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The results showed that there is a relationship between gender and triglyceride levels (p = 0.006) and HDL (p = 0.034), but no relationship between the ratio of TG/HDL (p = 0.109) and physical activity was found (p = 0.339).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Efforts should be made to reduce the level of risk adolescent obesity on the risk of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, including increase physical activity. Physical activity is important to maintain the physical and mental of obese adolescents.</p> Nurhaedar Jafar Aminuddin Syam Yessy Kurniati Een Kurnaesih Reza Aril Ahri Nurlela Jamaluddin Copyright (c) 2020 Nurhaedar Jafar, Aminuddin Syam, Yessy Kurniati, Een Kurnaesih, Reza Aril Ahri, Nurlela Jamaluddin (Author) 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 8 T2 81 86 10.3889/oamjms.2020.5229 Analysis of Nutrition Intake Based on Gender in Adolescents <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">BACKGROUND: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">Teenage is one of the important phases in life. At this stage adolescents need adequate nutritional intake to support the growth spurt process.</span></p> <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">AIM: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The study wanted to see how nutrition is based on gender in the city of Makassar.</span></p> <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">METHODS: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">This research was conducted in one senior high school in Makassar city, the capital city of South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. The study lasted for 3 months, from July to August 2018. The population in this study was students of class XI and class XII in the 2018–2019 academic year, amounting to 594 people. The sample amounted to 114 students using a sampling technique of systematic random sampling. Characteristics of respondents were collected using a standard questionnaire. The intake data were collected through 24-h food recall and processed using nutrisurvey. All information is then processed using SPSS. This was an observational study with a cross-sectional design. Data were analyzed using univariate analysis.</span></p> <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">RESULTS: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The majority of respondents in this study were girls adolescent (63.2%), age 16 years (52.6%), normal nutritional status (81.6%), education of fathers and mothers graduating from high school or equivalent (42.1% and 43, 0%), education of self-employed fathers (50%), and employment of mothers are housewives (79.8%), and pocket money of Rp. 10,000–20,000 (50.9%). The study found that male adolescents had a mean higher intake of energy, fat, fiber, vitamin A, vitamin B9, Vitamin B12 and Calcium. Whereas female adolescents have a mean higher intake of protein, vitamin B6, vitamin C, Fe and zinc. But the intake is not significantly different. Based on the adequacy of the 80% rate of nutritional needs, it was found that all adolescents did not meet these standards.</span></p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Nutritional intake in adolescents in Makassar still does not meet the recommended intake standards and does not differ in all sexes. Macronutrient and micronutrient intake in young men and women still does not meet the recommended nutritional adequacy rate.</p> Citrakesumasari Citrakesumasari Yessy Kurniati Devintha Virani Copyright (c) 2020 Citrakesumasari Citrakesumasari, Yessy Kurniati, Devintha Virani (Author) 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 8 T2 87 89 10.3889/oamjms.2020.5231 Accuracy of Actual Weight Measurement Using Upper arm Circumference in South Sulawesi Ethnics <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">BACKGROUND: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">Assessment of nutritional status in hospital patients is important to do. However, due to the patient’s condition, the measurement must use an estimation formula. This study wanted to know the accuracy of the measurement of body weight from the formula commonly used in hospitals.</span></p> <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">AIM: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">This study wants to see how accurate the actual body weight predictions are based on measurements of UAC in the ethnics in the province of South Sulawesi.</span></p> <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">METHODS: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The design of this study was cross-sectional. The population of this study was young adults aged 20–29 years. Number of sample is 896 respondents. Sampling consists of 2 stages, namely sample area and research sample. The sampling used was systematic random sampling. The sample size in this study was calculated using the Stanley Lemeshow formula.</span></p> <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">RESULTS: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The results showed that the formula used to predict the patient’s weight, if the formula is calculated using the formula 100% Patient Upper Arm Circumference (PUAC), it is suitable for ethnic Bugis and Mandar male. The formula 90% PUAC is suitable for ethnic Bugis and Mandar and male ethnic Makassarese and Toraja. The formula 85% is suitable for women for all ethnicities.</span></p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>It can be concluded that the accuracy of measuring body weight depends on gender and ethnicity, so it is expected that health practitioners in the hospital can adjust the use of formulas according to gender and ethnicity.</p> Citrakesumasari Citrakesumasari Yessy Kurniati Andi Imam Arundhana Abdul Salam Copyright (c) 2020 Citrakesumasari Citrakesumasari, Yessy Kurniati, Andi Imam Arundhana, Abdul Salam (Author) 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 8 T2 90 93 10.3889/oamjms.2020.5235 The Implementation of Balanced Nutrition Using “Piring Makanku” on Food Consumption of Orphanage Children in Makassar City <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">BACKGROUND: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">Compliance with food-based dietary guidelines has been known delivered positive effect on nutrition and public health.</span></p> <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">AIM: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">This study aimed to assess the implementation of balanced nutrition using piring makanku on food consumption of orphanage children.</span></p> <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">METHODS: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">This study design was quasi-experimental with a non-random pretest-posttest with a control group. A total of 30 samples in each group were selected purposively, the treatment group was given nutrition education and piring makanku while the control group was given nutrition education only. Data collected include subject characteristics, nutritional status, and the use of piring makanku (compliance, practice, and portion acceptability). Statistical analysis used t-test for paired and non-paired groups.</span></p> <p class="Pa6"><strong><span lang="EN-US">RESULTS: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The results showed that there were significant differences in both groups after the intervention. Statistically significant results on food consumption in the treatment group included energy (p = 0.002), protein (p = 0.000), and carbohydrate (p = 0.024), whereas in the control group statistically significant on protein (p = 0.002) and fat (p = 0.005). Moreover, there were no significant differences between study groups after the intervention, while there was a significant difference in mean scores of protein and fat intake between groups after the intervention.</span></p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>It was concluded that the two forms of intervention in this study had almost the same effect on the subject’s consumption, except for protein and fat intake. As a vulnerable group, children of orphanages need to pay attention to their nutritional and health conditions. In addition, campaign of isi piringku using piring makanku needs to be made in the form of lunch boxes to school.</p> Nurhaedar Jafar Amaliah Chairul Nusu Suriah Suriah Copyright (c) 2020 Nurhaedar Jafar, Amaliah Chairul Nusu, Suriah Suriah (Author) 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 8 T2 75 80 10.3889/oamjms.2020.5202