New System Delivering Microwaves Energy for Inducing Subcutaneous Fat Reduction: In - Vivo Histological and Ultrastructural Evidence
BACKGROUND: Recently, it has been developed a new technology for the reduction of subcutaneous adipose tissue through a non-invasive treatment by microwaves. The main objective of the present study is to demonstrate the feasibility of utilising a non-invasive, localised microwaves (MW) device to induce thermal modifications into subcutaneous adipose tissue only by a controlled electromagnetic field that heats up fat preferentially. This device is provided with a special handpiece appropriately cooled, directly contacting the cutaneous surface of the body, which provides a calibrated energy transfer by microwaves.
AIM: In this paper, microscopic and ultrastructural modifications of subcutaneous adipose tissue induced by microwaves irradiation are evaluated.
METHODS: Our experimental plan was designed for collecting biopsy samples, for each skin region treated with a single irradiation session, 1) before treatment (control), 2) immediately after treatment, 3) after 6 hrs, 4) after 1 month, 5) after 2 months. Bioptic samples from each step were processed for light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. At the same time, each region where biopsies were collected was subjected to ultrasound examination. Recorded images permitted to evaluate the thickness of different layers as epidermis, dermis, hypodermis, connective fasciae, until to muscle layer, and related modifications induced by treatment.
RESULTS: In every biopsy collected at different time-steps, epidermis and superficial dermis appeared not modified compared to control. Differently, already in the short-term biopsies, in the deep dermis and superficial hypodermis, fibrillar connective tissue appeared modified, showing reduction and fragmentation of interlobular collagen septa. The most important adipose tissue modifications were detectable following 1 month from treatment, with a significant reduction of subcutaneous fat, participating both the lysis of many adipocytes and the related phagocytic action of monocytes/macrophages on residuals of compromised structures of adipocytes. In the samples collected two months following treatment, the remnants of adipose tissue appeared normal, and macrophages were completely absent.
CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound, microscopic and ultrastructural evidence are supporting significant effectiveness of the new device treatment in the reduction of subcutaneous fat. In this paper, the possible mechanisms involved in the activation of the monocytes/macrophages system responsible for the removal of adipocytes residuals have also been discussed.
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Copyright (c) 2019 Nicola Zerbinati, Edoardo dâ€™Este, Antonia Icaro Cornaglia, Federica Riva, Aurora Farina, Alberto Calligaro, Giovanni Gallo, Emanuele Rosario Perrotta, Marina Protasoni, Paolo Bonan, Aleksandra Vojvodic, Massimo Fioranelli, Van Thuong Nguyen, Torello Lotti, Michael Tirant, Petar Vojvodic (Author)
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