Hepatitis E Infection in Nigeria: A Systematic Review

  • Hilary I. Okagbue Department of Mathematics, College of Science and Technology, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria
  • Muminu O. Adamu Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria
  • Sheila A. Bishop Department of Mathematics, College of Science and Technology, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria
  • Pelumi E. Oguntunde Department of Mathematics, College of Science and Technology, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria
  • Oluwole A. Odetunmibi Department of Mathematics, College of Science and Technology, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria
  • Abiodun A. Opanuga Department of Mathematics, College of Science and Technology, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria
Keywords: Hepatitis E, Hepatitis B, Odd ratio, Logistic regression, Prevalence, Statistics

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Research done globally on hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is far fewer compared with other types of hepatitis virus infection. Little is known on the prevalence of HEV in Nigeria.

AIM: The present study presents the prevalence of HEV infection in Nigeria from a few available research papers on HEV. The detailed statistical analysis was used to analyse the prevalence of HEV in humans and animals.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A literature search in Web of Science, Scopus and PubMed databases was done, and a final 7 articles were selected. Minitab 17.0 was used to perform the correlational and binary logistic analyses.

RESULTS: Serum and faecal analysis of blood and stool samples of 1178 humans and 210 pigs (animals) were done, and the presence of anti-HEV IgG or HEV RNA in the study samples were 127 and 138 respectively. Further analysis showed the prevalence of HEV are 10.8% and 65.7% in humans and animals, respectively. Weak positive non-significant association (r = 0.327, p-value = 0.474) was obtained between the target (humans and animal) and the HEV infection (positive) groups. The application of binary logistic regression yielded an equation that can be used to predict the target group from the HEV positive humans or animals. Generally, the logistic model was not statistically significant (p-value = 0.376), and the model was able to explain 9.3% of the deviation or variability of the model. The odds ratio is OR = 1.0344 with 0.9550, 1.204 95% Confidence Interval (CI). Thus, in Nigeria, the odds of prevalence of HEV in animals are 1.0344 higher than humans.

CONCLUSION: The risk factors obtained from the few available articles are consistent with the global epidemiology of HEV infection. Food and animal handlers and those that consume unsafe water are the key people at risk of HEV infection in Nigeria.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block

References

Nicand E, Grandadam M. Hepatitis E virus. Virologie. 2003; 7(2): 87-96.

Assih M, Ouattara AK, Diarra B, Yonli AT, Compaore TR, Obiri-Yeboah D, Djigma F, Karou S, Simpore J. Genetic diversity of hepatitis viruses in West-African countries from 1996 to 2018. World J Hepatol. 2018; 10(11): 807-821. https://doi.org/10.4254/wjh.v10.i11.807 PMid:30533182 PMCid:PMC6280160

Lee EB, Kim JH, Hur W, Choi JE, Kim SM, Park DJ, Kang BY, Lee GW, Yoon SK. Liver-specific Gene Delivery Using Engineered Virus-Like Particles of Hepatitis E Virus. Scientific Reports. 2019; 9(1): Article number 1616. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-38533-7 PMid:30733562 PMCid:PMC6367430

Vázquez-Morón S, Berenguer J, González-García J, Jiménez-Sousa MÃ, Canorea I, Guardiola JM, Crespo M, Quereda C, Sanz J, Carrero A, Hontañón V, Avellón A, Resino S. Prevalence of hepatitis E infection in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients in Spain (2012-2014). Scientific Reports. 2019; 9(1): Article number 1143. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-37328-6 PMid:30718554 PMCid:PMC6361883

Yamamoto C, Ko K, Nagashima S, Harakawa T, Fujii T, Ohisa M, Katayama K, Takahashi K, Okamoto H, Tanaka J. Very low prevalence of anti-HAV in Japan: high potential for a future outbreak. Scientific Reports. 2019, 9(1): Article number 1493. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-37349-1 PMid:30728377 PMCid:PMC6365493

Zong L, Peng H, Sun C, Li F, Zheng M, Chen Y, Wei H, Sun R, Tian Z. Breakdown of adaptive immunotolerance induces hepatocellular carcinoma in HBsAg-tg mice. Nature Comm. 2019; 10(1): Article number 221. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-08096-8 PMid:30644386 PMCid:PMC6333806

Khadem Ansari MH, Rasmi Y, Abbasi L. Hepatitis B virus Genotypes in West Azarbayjan Province, Northwest Iran. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2017; 5(7): 875-879. https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2017.206 PMid:29362612 PMCid:PMC5771288

Hoofnagle JH. Course and outcome of hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2002; 36(5): S21-S29. https://doi.org/10.1053/jhep.2002.36227 PMid:12407573

Youssef SS, Elemeery MN, Eldein SS, Ghareeb DA. Silencing HCV replication in its reservoir. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2018; 6(11): 1965-1971. https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2018.372

Vila Brunilda H, Lila S, Erjona A, Silva B, Tefta R. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus in the population of Albania for the period 2007-2010. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2014; 2(3): 525-528. https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2014.094

Ouedraogo HG, Kouanda S, Grosso A, Compaoré R, Camara M, Dabire C, Ouedraogo R, Traore Y, Baral S, Barro N. Hepatitis B, C, and D virus and human T-cell leukemia virus types 1 and 2 infections and correlates among men who have sex with men in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Virology Journal. 2018; 15(1): Article number 194. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12985-018-1110-8 PMid:30594218 PMCid:PMC6311018

Abiodun O, Shobowale O, Elikwu C, Ogbaro D, Omotosho A, Mark B, Akinbola A. Risk perception and knowledge of hepatitis B infection among cleaners in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria: A cross-sectional study. Clin Epidemiol Global Health. 2019; 7(1): 11-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cegh.2017.12.001

Omotowo IB, Meka IA, Ijoma UN, Okoli VE, Obienu O, Nwagha T, Ndu AC, Onodugo DO, Onyekonwu LC, Ugwu EO. Uptake of hepatitis B vaccination and its determinants among health care workers in a tertiary health facility in Enugu, South-East, Nigeria. BMC Infect Dis. 2018; 18(1): Article number 288. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-018-3191-9 PMid:29954344 PMCid:PMC6027786

Agan TU, Monjok E, Akpan UB, Omoronyia OE, Ekabua JE. Trend and causes of maternal mortality in a Nigerian tertiary hospital: A 5-year retrospective study (2010-2014) at the university of Calabar teaching hospital, Calabar, Nigeria. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2018; 6(6):1153-1158. https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2018.220

PMid:29983819 PMCid:PMC6026429

Popov GT, Pepovich R, Tsachev I. Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Bulgaria: A Brief Analysis of the Situation in the Country. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2019; 7(3): 458-460. https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.073 PMid:30834019 PMCid:PMC6390163

Baymakova M, Popov GT, Pepovich R, Tsachev I. Hepatitis E virus infection in Bulgaria: a brief analysis of the situation in the country. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2019; 7(3): 458-460. https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.073 PMid:30834019 PMCid:PMC6390163

Pepovich R, Baymakova M, Pishmisheva M, Marutsov P, Pekova L, Tsachev I. Current knowledge on Hepatitis E virus infection. Vojnosanit Pregl. 2019; 76(7): https://doi.org/10.2298/VSP170815159P

Baymakova M, Sakem B, Plochev K, Popov GT, Mihaylova-Garnizova R, Kovaleva V, et al. Epidemiological characteristics and clinical manifestations of hepatitis E virus infection in Bulgaria: a report on 20 patients. Srp Arh Celok Lek. 2016; 144(1-2): 63-68. https://doi.org/10.2298/SARH1602063B PMid:27276860

Akanbi OA, Harms D, Wang B, Opaleye OO, Adesina O, Osundare FA, et al. Complete genome sequence of a hepatitis E virus genotype 1e strain from an outbreak in Nigeria, 2017. Microbiol Resour Announc. 2019; 8(1): e01378-18. https://doi.org/10.1128/MRA.01378-18 PMid:30637389 PMCid:PMC6318360

Wang B, Akanbi OA, Harms D, Adesina O, Osundare FA, Naidoo D, et al. A new hepatitis E virus genotype 2 strain identified from an outbreak in Nigeria, 2017. Virol J. 2018; 15(1): 163. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12985-018-1082-8 PMid:30352598 PMCid:PMC6199738

Ifeorah IM, Faleye TOC, Bakarey AS, Adewumi MO, Akere A, Omoruyi EC, et al. Acute hepatitis E virus infection in two geographical regions of Nigeria. J Pathog. 2017; 2017: 4067108. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4067108 PMid:29387489 PMCid:PMC5745689

Oguntunde PE, Adejumo AO, Okagbue HI. Breast Cancer Patients in Nigeria: Data exploration approach. Data in Brief. 2017; 15: 47-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2017.08.038 PMid:28971122 PMCid:PMC5612794

Adamu PI, Oguntunde PE, Okagbue HI, Agboola OO. Statistical data analysis of cancer incidences in insurgency affected states in Nigeria. Data in Brief. 2018; 18: 2029-2046. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2018.04.135 PMid:29904711 PMCid:PMC5998707

Adejumo AO, Ikoba NA, Suleiman EA, Okagbue HI, Oguntunde PE, Odetunmibi OA, Job O. Quantitative Exploration of Factors influencing Psychotic Disorder Ailments in Nigeria. Data in Brief. 2017; 14: 175-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2017.07.046 PMid:28795095 PMCid:PMC5537424

Adamu PI, Adamu MO, Okagbue HI. Data in support of high rate of pregnancy related deaths in Maiduguri, Borno State, Northeast Nigeria. Data in Brief. 2018; 18: 409-414. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2018.03.038 PMid:29900198 PMCid:PMC5996266

Adejumo AO, Suleiman EA, Okagbue HI, Oguntunde PE, Odetunmibi OA. Quantitative Evaluation of Pregnant Women Delivery Status' Records in Akure, Nigeria. Data in Brief. 2018; 16: 127-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2017.11.041 PMid:29201979 PMCid:PMC5699871

Adamu PI, Oguntunde PE, Okagbue HI, Agboola OO. On the Epidemiology and Statistical Analysis of HIV/AIDS Patients in the Insurgency Affected States of Nigeria. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2018; 6 (7): 1315-1321. https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2018.229 PMid:30087744 PMCid:PMC6062286

Adamu PI, Adamu MO, Okagbue HI, Opoola L, Bishop SA. Survival Analysis of Cancer Patients in North Eastern Nigeria from 2004-2017 - A Kaplan - Meier Method. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2019; 7(4): 642-649. https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.109 PMid:30894929 PMCid:PMC6420928

Panther E, Thimme R, Blum HE. Jaundice in an HIV-positive pregnant woman. Deut Mediz Wochen. 2008; 133(30): 1560-1562. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2008-1081109 PMid:18642217

Ola SO, Odaibo GN, Olaleye OD, Ayoola EA. Hepatitis B and E viral infections among Nigerian healthcare workers. Afr J Med Medic Sci. 2013; 41(4): 387-391.

Owolodun OA, Gerber PF, Giménez-Lirola LG, Kwaga JKP, Opriessnig T. First report of hepatitis E virus circulation in domestic pigs in Nigeria Amer J Trop Med Hygiene. 2014; 91(4): 699-704. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.14-0144 PMid:25002299 PMCid:PMC4183390

Junaid SA, Agina SE, Abubakar KA. Epidemiology and associated risk factors of hepatitis E virus infection in Plateau State, Nigeria. Virology. 2014; 5: 15-26. https://doi.org/10.4137/VRT.S15422 PMid:25512696 PMCid:PMC4251053

Ekanem E, Ikobah J, Okpara H, Udo J. Seroprevalence and predictors of hepatitis e infection in Nigerian children. J Infect Devel Count. 2015; 9(11): 1220-1225. https://doi.org/10.3855/jidc.6736 PMid:26623631

Antia RE, Adekola AA, Jubril AJ, Ohore OG, Emikpe BO. Hepatitis E Virus infection seroprevalence and the associated risk factors in animals raised in Ibadan, Nigeria. J Immun Immunochem. 2018; 39(5): 509-520. https://doi.org/10.1080/15321819.2018.1514507 PMid:30212262

Fowotade A, Akande O, Gbaja AT, Ogunleye VO, Ajayi A, Kehinde AO. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E among restaurant food handlers in Ibadan, Nigeria. Tanzania J Health Res. 2018; 20(3):1-7.

Published
2019-05-29
How to Cite
1.
Okagbue HI, Adamu MO, Bishop SA, Oguntunde PE, Odetunmibi OA, Opanuga AA. Hepatitis E Infection in Nigeria: A Systematic Review. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2019May29 [cited 2021Jan.18];7(10):1719-22. Available from: https://www.id-press.eu/mjms/article/view/oamjms.2019.143
Section
F - Review Articles