The Alcmaeonâ€™s School of Croton: Philosophy and Science
Among the first physicians and physiologists at the pre-Hippocratic medicine with contradictions and oscillating doctrines was Alcmaeon from Croton in the 6th century BC. For many, he shared as the father of scientific medicine. Unfortunately, we have only eighteen texts written for him and only five fragments of texts written by him. This saved extracts and testimonies they refer mostly to physiology, epistemology and psychology. Was born in the city of Croton (ÎšÏÏŒÏ„Ï‰Î½) in Magna Graecia (southern Italy) was a reference point for the activity of physicians and philosophers over the years. Furthermore, Herodotus tells us about the excellent practice quality of the physicians, â€œcompared to all the others known in that periodâ€, among which Alcmaeon. But Croton is also famous as the centre of thought and activity of the philosopher Pythagoras of Samos (Î Ï…Î¸Î±Î³ÏŒÏÎ±Ï‚ á½ Î£Î¬Î¼Î¹Î¿Ï‚, 580-500 BC) through his Pythagorean school around 530 BC.
Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block
JardÃ© A. The formation of the Greek people. Routledge, 2013.
Herodotus. The Histories. Pinguin Classics, 2014:226.
Astour MC Ancient Greek Civilization in Southern Italy. The Journal of Aesthetic Education. 1985; 19(1Special Issue: Paestum and Classical Culture: Past and Present):23-37.
Longeway J, Book I. Greek and Roman Thought I. Beginnings-Philosophy and the Scientific World View, Preliterate Thought, Spirits and Magic. (https://longeway.files.wordpress.com/2013/11/i-01-beginnings-philosophy-and-science-rev1.pdf)
Huffman, C. A., Two Problems in Pythagoreanism, in P. Curd and D. W. Graham, (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Presocratic Philosophy, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008:284â€“304.
Santacroce L, Dâ€™agostino D, Charitos IA, Bottalico L, Ballini A. A short review about electrophysiology and bioimpedance: History and perspectives. Indian J Public Health Res Dev. 2018; 9:11; 587-591. https://doi.org/10.5958/0976-5506.2018.01521.8
Huffman CA, editor. A History of Pythagoreanism. Cambridge University Press; 2014. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139028172
Smith W. A Classical Dictionary of Biography, Mythology and Geography: Based on the Larger Dictionaries. J. Murray, 1891.
Curd P, McKirahan RD. A Presocratics reader: selected fragments and testimonia. Hackett Publishing, 2011.
Cornelli G, McKirahan R, Macris C, editors. On Pythagoreanism. Walter de Gruyter, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110318500
Laertius D. Lives of the Eminent Philosophers: by Diogenes Laertius. Oxford University Press, 2018.
Zhmud L. Pythagoras and the early Pythagoreans. Oxford University Press, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199289318.001.0001 PMid:23289235
Codellas PS. Alcmaeon of Croton: His life, work, and fragments. Proc R Soc Med. 1932; 25:1041-1042.
H. Diels and W. Kranz, Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. 3 vols, 6th edn. Dublin/Zurich: Weidmann, 1954.
Triarhou LC. Democritean Conceptions in Brain Research. Archives of Neuroscience. 2016; 3(2). https://doi.org/10.5812/archneurosci.35877
Foca A. The Origin of Experimental Medicine in the School of Alcmaeon from Croton and the Diffusion of his Philosophy within the Mediterranean Area.
Debernardi A, Sala E, D'aliberti G, Talamonti G, Franchini AF, Collice M. Alcmaeon of croton. Neurosurgery. 2010; 66(2):247-52. https://doi.org/10.1227/01.NEU.0000363193.24806.02 PMid:20087125
Miller J. An Introductory on Pictorial Anatomy, Art.VIII, Monthly Review for August, Vol.2,No IV, 1842
Franco N. Animal experiments in biomedical research: a historical perspective. Animals. 2013; 3(1):238-73. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani3010238 PMid:26487317 PMCid:PMC4495509
Panegyres KP, Panegyres PK. The Ancient Greek discovery of the nervous system: Alcmaeon, Praxagoras and Herophilus. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience. 2016; 29:21-4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2015.10.047 PMid:26898584
Celesia GG, Alcmaeon of Croton's observations on health, brain, mind, and soul, Hist Neurosci. 2012; 21(4):409-26. https://doi.org/10.1080/0964704X.2011.626265 PMid:22947382
Santacroce L, Bottalico L, Charitos IA. Greek medicine practice at ancient Rome: The physician molecularist Asclepiades. Medicines. 2017; 4(4):92. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines4040092 PMid:29231878 PMCid:PMC5750616
Copyright (c) 2019 Luigi Santacroce, Ioannis Alexandros Charitos, Skender Topi, Lucrezia Bottalico
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
All rights reserved.