Serum Midkine Levels in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
BACKGROUND: Midkine (MK) induces inflammation and could inhibit inducible regulatory T cell differentiation. These reports suggest that MK may play a role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease including SLE, but data about MK in SLE patients was still limited, and the role of Midkine in SLE is largely unknown.
AIM: The purpose of this study was to compare serum level MK in SLE patients and control, also analysed the relationship between the serum MK level and disease activity in SLE.
METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Adam Malik Hospital from January-June 2017. Diagnosis of SLE was established according to the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) classification criteria, and disease activity was assessed using the Mexican Systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (MEX-SLEDAI). Subjects with evidence of malignancy and systemic disease (pulmonary, kidney, liver, metabolic disorder, etc.) were excluded. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 22nd version. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
RESULTS: There were 90 subjects and divided into 2 groups: SLE patients group (n=40) and healthy control groups (n = 50). Midkine levels were increased in the serum of SLE patients compared by health control. There was a significant difference in the median serum Midkine levels between SLE patients and healthy control (P < 0.001). Elevated Midkine serum levels were a significant difference between active disease and remission (P = 0.018).CONCLUSION: Elevated Midkine serum level could be a marker of SLE disease activity and have a role in the pathogenesis of SLE.
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