Schizophrenia as Potential Trigger for Melanoma Development and Progression! The Psycho-Neuro-Endocrine-Oncology (P.N.E.O) Network!
BACKGROUND: Skin, nervous tissue, dopamine and melanoma share a common neuroectodermal origin. Hence, processes that modulate nervous tissue formation, patient mental status, motor regulation of individuals, and skin cancerogenesis are inextricably linked. Psycho-neuro-endocrine oncology (or dermato-oncology), i.e. P.N.E.O., is a new model or trend in medicine and science presented for the first time in the world literature by us, that aims to examine the relationship between the mental state, the hormones and the malignant transformation. Schizophrenia and Parkinsonâ€™s disease are the two main patterns of disease where the main symptoms are related to dopamine levels in the human body. According to our analyses of the available literature, the amount of dopamine is related to the incidence of melanocytic or non-melanocytic cutaneous tumours in patients with central nervous system diseases and those affecting the motor function and coordination. Such patterns of interaction are extremely indicative of the elucidation of the ubiquitous hypothesis or statement: â€œMy illness is on a mental basis, caused by stress ...â€
CASE PRESENTATION: We present a 44-year-old patient with untreated schizophrenia for approximately 25 years, associated with advanced acral localised melanoma. Schizophrenia is generally associated with a higher level of dopamine, which is also a key precursor to melanin synthesis. After a careful analysis of all literature on melanoma in patients with 1) treated and untreated schizophrenia, 2) those with untreated and untreated forms of Parkinsonâ€™s disease, it would be logical to conclude that the high level of dopamine in the described patient groups is a risk factor for the development of melanoma.CONCLUSIONS: The possible mechanisms for the occurrence of malignant melanoma within the so-called psycho/neuro/endocrine oncology (P.N.E.O.), as well as the effective methods of prevention, are under discussion.
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