Health Promotion Toolkit: An Approach for Empowering Families Caring For Children with Developmental Disabilities in Tabuk

  • Azza Abdalla Ghoneim Tabuk University, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia; Menoufia University, Al Minufya, Egypt
Keywords: Developmental disabilities, Health promotion, empowerment


AIM: The study aimed to determine the effects of the health promotion toolkit on empowering families caring for children with developmental disability. It hypothesised that health promotion toolkit would effectively improve families' empowerment and alleviate parental stress.

METHODOLOGY: The research design was quasi-experimental. A convenience sample of 30 children with DD and their families enrolled at Shoaa ElAmal Center in Umluj participated. Tools were Health Promotion Assessment Sheet, Family Empowerment Scale, and the Parent Stress Index.

RESULTS: The results documented significant lower levels of parental stress and higher levels of family empowerment among mothers at posttest than pretest. A significant negative correlation between family empowerment and parental stress was reported.

CONCLUSION: Health promotion toolkit had a positive effect on empowering families as well as lowering parental stress. Recommendation Health promotion toolkit should be integrated as a monitoring method of health care needs of health promotional activities for children with developmental disabilities.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block

Author Biography

Azza Abdalla Ghoneim, Tabuk University, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia; Menoufia University, Al Minufya, Egypt
pediatric Nursing department


Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Developmental Disabilities [Internet]. National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities; 2015 Sept 8 [updated 2017 April 21; cited 2017]. Available from:

Boyle CA, Boulet S, Schieve L, Cohen RA, Blumberg SJ, Yeargin Allsopp M, Visser S, Kogan MD. Trends in the Prevalence of Developmental Disabilities in US Children, 1997–2008. Pediatrics. 2011; 27:1034-1042. PMid:21606152

Batshaw ML. Children with Disabilities. 5th ed. Paul H, Brookes Publishing comp; 2002. Retrieved from:

Ansberry C. Erasing a Hurtful Label from the Books: Decades-long quest by disabilities advocates finally persuades state, federal governments to end official use of retarded. Wall Street Journal. (New York). Sect. US (col.1), 2010.

Wilmshurst L. General learning disability Clinical and Educational Child Psychology an Ecological-Transactional Approach to Understanding Child Problems and Interventions. Hoboken: Wiley, 2012: 168.

Verep S. Affect of nursery education given to mothers of the children with mental disability to decrease mothers' fatigue [Master Thesis]. [Erzurum, Türkiye]: Atatürk University, Graduate School of Health Sciences, 2005.

El-Hazmi MA, Al-Swailem AA, Al-Mosa NA, Al-Jarallah AA. Prevalence of mental retardation among children in Saudi Arabia. East Mediterr Health J. 2003; 9 (1-2):6-11. PMid:15562727

Al Salloum AA, El Mouzan MI, Al Omar AA, Al Herbish AS, Qurashi MM. The prevalence of neurological disorders in Saudi children: a community-based study. J Child Neurol. 2011; 26(1):21-24. PMid:21212450

Krahn GL, Fox MH. Health disparities of adults with intellectual disabilities. JARID. 2013; 27(5):431–446. PMid:23913632

Haider SI, Ansari Z, Vaughan L, Matters H, Emerson E. Health and wellbeing of Victorian adults with intellectual disability compared to the general Victorian population. Research in Developmental Disabilities. 2013; 34(11):4034–4042. PMid:24036484

American Association on Intellectual & Developmental Disabilities. Intellectual Disability: Definition, Classification, and Systems of Supports, 11th Ed. Washington DC: American Association on Intellectual & Developmental Disabilities, 2011.

Gibson CH. A Study of Empowerment in Mothers of Chronically ill Children. [Dissertation]: Boston College, 1993.

Mugno D, Ruta L, Genitori D'Arrigo V, Mazzone L. Impairment of quality of life in parents of children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorder. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. 2007; (5):22. PMid:17466072 PMCid:PMC1868708

Coyne I. Disruption of parent participation: Nurse's strategies to manage parents on children's wards. JCN. 2007; (17):3150-3158.

Jolley J, Shields L. The evolution of family-centered cure. Journal of Pediatric Nursing. 2009; 24(2):164-170. PMid:19268238

Bagner DM, Eyberg SM. Parent-child interaction therapy for disruptive behavior in children with mental retardation: A randomized controlled trial. JCCAP. 2007; (36):418–429.

Panicker L. Nurses' perceptions of parent empowerment in chronic illness. Contemporary Nurse. 2013; 45(2): 210-219. PMid:24299249

Geneva. The Urgency of Health Promotion Overview. 7th Global Conference on Health promotion; October 2009, Kenya. Available from: gchp/overview/en/index.html.

Goodstadt MS, Simpson RI, Loranger PO. Health promotion: a conceptual integration. American Journal of Health Promotion. 1986; 1(3):58-63.

Edelman CL, Kudzma EC, Mandle CL. Health Promotion throughout Life Span. 8th ed. Mosby, Elsevier Inc., 2014.

Klossner N, Hatifield N. Introductory Maternity and Nursing. 9th ed., Lippincott Williams and Wilkins Company. Philadelphia, Ch. 34, 2006:798-800.

Al-Jadid MS. Disability in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J. 2013; 34(5):453-460. PMid:23677260

Loisel P, Lemaire J, Poitras S, Durand MJ, Champagne F, Stock S, et al. Cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis of a disability prevention model for back pain management: six years follow up study. Occup Environ Med. 2002; (59):807-815. PMid:12468746 PMCid:PMC1763600

World Health Organization. World report on disability. Geneva (CH): World Health Organization, 2011.

Koren P, DeChillo N, Friesen B.J. Measuring Empowerment in Families Whose Children Have Emotional Disabilities: A Brief Questionnaire. Rehabilitation psychology. 1992; 37(4):305-320.

Abidin RR. A Professional Manual for Parenting Stress Index. 3rd Ed. PAR, Odessa, FL. Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc., 1995. PMid:7702825

Mash J, and Wolfe A. Abnormal Child Psychology. 3rd ed., Thomson Wadsworth Company, USA. Chapter: 9, 2005: 262-280. PMCid:PMC3843355

Ghoneim A, Khalifa M, Thabet A, Salah S. Impact of Mental Retardation on Quality of Life of Children at Shebin Elkom [Master thesis]. [Shebin Elkom]: Menofia University, 2008:150.

Moes D, Koegel R, Schreibman L, Loos L. Stress profiles for mothers and fathers of children with autism. Psychological Reports. 1992; 71:1272–4. PMid:1480714

Abbeduto L, Seltzer M, Shattuck P, Kruss M, Orsmond G, Murphy M. Psychological well-being and coping in mothers of youths with autism, Down syndrome, or fragile X syndrome. American Journal on Mental Retardation. 2004; 109:237–54.<237:PWACIM>2.0.CO;2

Yousef Y, Darwish I, Shehata A. Behavioral problems of mental retardation handicapped children encountered by their mothers. Bulletin of High Institute of Public Health. 2004; 34(1).

Gibson CH. The process of empowerment in mothers of chronically ill children. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 1995; (21):1201-10. PMid:7665789

Dardas LA, Ahmad MM. Psychometric properties of the Parenting Stress Index with parents of children with autistic disorder. JIDR. 2013; 2013.

Shatla R, Sayyah H, Azzam H, Elsayed R. Correlates of parental stress and psychopathology in pediatric epilepsy. Ann Indian Acad Neurol. 2012; (14):2526.

Nachshen SJ, Minnes P. Empowerment in parents of school-aged children with and without developmental disabilities. JIDR. 2005; (49)12:889-904. PMid:16287478

Estes A, Munson J, Dawson G, Koehler E, Zhou XH, Abbott R. Parenting Stress and Psychological Functioning among Mothers of Preschool Children with Developmental Delay: Autism. International journal of research and practice. 2009; 13(4):375-87. PMid:19535467 PMCid:PMC2965631

Minjarez MB, Mercier EM, Williams SE, Hardan AY. Impact of Pivotal Response Training Group Therapy on Stress and Empowerment in Parents of Children with Autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Intervention. 2013; 15:71-78.

Dempsey I, Dunst C. Help giving styles and parent empowerment in families with a young child with a disability. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability. 2004; 29(1):40-51.

Gatta M, Balottin L, Mannarini S, Birocchi V, Del Col L, Battistella PA. Parental Stress and psychopathological traits in children and adolescents. A controlled study. Riv Psichiatr. 2016; 51(6):251-259. PMid:27996985

How to Cite
Ghoneim AA. Health Promotion Toolkit: An Approach for Empowering Families Caring For Children with Developmental Disabilities in Tabuk. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2018Aug.5 [cited 2020Nov.26];6(8):1503-11. Available from:
E - Public Health