Immunotherapy in Allergic Rhinitis: Itâ€™s Effect on the Immune System and Clinical Symptoms
BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis is one of the most common allergic diseases and characterised by sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal congestion and nasopharyngeal itching. Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) for specific allergens is an effective treatment and induces the inhibitory effect of T regulatory lymphocytes and decreases clinical symptoms in allergic rhinitis.
AIM: In this study effect of subcutaneous immunotherapy with specific allergens on clinical symptoms and T regulatory and T Helper cells cytokines, in patients with allergic rhinitis are evaluated.
METHODS: In this study, 30 patients with moderate to severe allergic rhinitis according to clinical criteria and positive skin prick test for aeroallergens were selected and treated by SCIT. Clinical symptoms and T cells cytokines IL4, IL17, IFN gamma, TGF beta, GITR, FOXP3 and IL-10 (by RT-PCR) were evaluated before and one year after initiation of treatment.
RESULTS: Thirty (30) patients with allergic rhinitis at age range 15-45 years old were treated by SCIT, and 23 (14 female, 9 male) patients continued the study, and 7 patients did not continue treatment. After immunotherapy, clinical symptoms decreased significantly. The specific cytokines TGF beta and IL10 levels increased and changes were statistically significant. (Respectively P = 0.013 and P = 0.05) The IL17 level was also increased, but not statistically significant. (P = 0.8) IFN gamma, IL4, GITR, FOXP3, all decreased, but the changes were not statistically significant (P > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Subcutaneous Immunotherapy for specific allergens decreases clinical symptoms in patients with allergic rhinitis and induces tolerance in T lymphocytes, especially by increasing T regulatory cells cytokines, TGF beta and IL10.
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