Detection of Biofilm Producing Staphylococci among Different Clinical Isolates and Its Relation to Methicillin Susceptibility
AIMS: To evaluate three in vitro phenotypic methods; tissue culture plate, tube method, and Congo red agar for detection of biofilm formation in staphylococci and assess the relation of biofilm formation with methicillin resistance and anti-microbial resistance.
METHODS: The study included 150 staphylococcal isolates. Biofilm detection in staphylococci was performed using tissue culture plate, tube method, and Congo red agar.
RESULTS: Tissue culture plate, tube method, and Congo red agar detected 74%, 42.7%, and 1.3% biofilm producing staphylococci respectively. S. aureus isolates were more common biofilm producers (53.2%) than CONS (46.8%). Biofilm production in CONS species was highest in S. hemolyticus (57.7%). Tube method was 51.4% sensitive, 82.1% specific. As for Congo red agar, sensitivity was very low (0.9%), but specificity was 97.4%. Biofilm producers were mostly; isolated from blood specimens (82.6%) and detected in methicillin-resistant strains 96/111 (86.5%). They were resistant to most antibiotics except vancomycin and linezolid.
CONCLUSIONS: Tissue culture plate is a more quantitative and reliable method for detection of biofilm producing staphylococci compared to tube method and Congo red agar. Hence, it can still be used as a screening method for biofilm detection. Vancomycin and Linezolid are the most sensitive antibiotics among biofilm producing staphylococci.
Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block
Taj Y, Essa F, Aziz F, Kazmi SU. Study on biofilm-forming properties of clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries. 2011; 6(05):403-9.
Agarwal A, Jain A. Drug-resistant clinical staphylococcal isolates & biofilm production. Ind J Med Res April. 2012; 135: 562-564.
Macintosh RL, Brittan JL, Bhattacharya R, Jenkinson HF, Derrick J, Upton M, Handley PS. The terminal A domain of the fibrillar accumulation-associated protein (Aap) of Staphylococcus epidermidis mediates adhesion to human corneocytes. Journal of bacteriology. 2009; 191(22):7007-16. https://doi.org/10.1128/JB.00764-09 PMid:19749046 PMCid:PMC2772481
Sharvari S, Chitra P. Evaluation of different detection methods of biofilm formation in clinical isolates of staphylococci. Int J Pharm Bio Sci. 2012; 3(4):724 â€“ 733.
Sarita Y, Madhu S, Aparna Y, Uma C. A study of biofilm production in Staphyloccus aureus. Int J Pharm Med & Biol Sci. 2014; 3: 61-63.
Christensen GD, Simpson WA, Younger JA, et al. Adherence of cogulase negative Staphylococi to plastic tissue cultures:a quantitative model for the adherence of staphylococci to medical devices. J Clin Microbiol. 1985; 22:996-1006 .PMid:3905855 PMCid:PMC271866
Christensen GD, Simpson WA, Bisno AL, et al. Adherence of slime-producing strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis to smooth surfaces. Infect Immun. 1982; 37:318-26. PMid:6179880 PMCid:PMC347529
Freeman DJ, Falkiner FR, Keane CT. New method for detecting slime production by coagulase negative staphylococci. J Clin Pathol. 1989; 42:872â€“4. https://doi.org/10.1136/jcp.42.8.872 PMid:2475530 PMCid:PMC1142068
Clinical laboratory standards institute (CLSI). Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing; Twenty fourth informational supplement. M100 S25. Clinical laboratory standards institute, Wayne (PA), 2015.
Ramakrishna P, Syed A, Ashthami V, et al. Biofilm: Comparison between the Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococcus species isolated from a rural medical college hospital in North Kerala, India. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci. 2014; 3(1): 23-29.
Mathur T, Singhal S, Khan S, et al. Detection of Biofilm Formation among the Clinical Isolates of Staphylococci: An Evaluation of Three Different Screening Methods. Ind J Med Microbiol. 2006; 24(1):25-29. https://doi.org/10.4103/0255-0857.19890
Bose S, Khodke M, Bask S, et al. Detection of biofilm producing Staphylococci: Need of hour. J Clin Diag Res. 2009; (3):1915-1920.
Akinkunmi E, Lamikanra A. Phenotypic Determination of Some Virulence Factors in Staphylococci Isolated From Faecal Samples of Children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, Afr J Biomed Res. 2012; 15:123â€“128.
Nasr R, AbuShady H, Hussein S. Biofilm formation and presence of icaAD gene in clinical isolates of staphylococci. The Egy J Med Hum Gen. 2012; (13):269-274.
Sharvari S, Chitra P. Evaluation of different detection methods of biofilm formation in clinical isolates of staphylococci. Int J Pharm Bio Sci. 2012; 3(4):724â€“733.
Snehali M, Wolffs P, Christian J, Mohammed R. Rapid detection of methicillin resistance and biofilm formation in Staphylococcal species. J Chem Pharmac Res. 2014; 6(10):148-154.
Fatima K, Indu S, Meher R, et al. Detection of Biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus. Does it have a role in t/t of MRSA infections? Trends in Med Res. 2011; 2:116-123.
Oliveira A, Cunha M. Comparison of methods for the detection of biofilm production in coagulase-negative staphylococci. BMC Res Notes. 2010; 3:1-8. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-3-260 PMid:20946672 PMCid:PMC2973941
O'Neill E, Pozzi C, Houston P, et al. Association between Methicillin Susceptibility and Biofilm Regulation in Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Device-Related Infections. J Clin Microbiol. 2007; 45(5):1379-1388. https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.02280-06 PMid:17329452 PMCid:PMC1865887
Rewatkar A, Wadher B. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa- Biofilm formation Methods. J Pharm Biol Sci. 2013; 8:36-40. https://doi.org/10.9790/3008-0853640
Eiichi A, Koichi M, Ritsuko M, et al. Biofilm formation among MRSA isolates from patients with urinary tract infection. Acta Med Okayama. 2004; 4: 207-214.
Saha R, Arora S, Das S, et al. Detection of biofilm formation in urinary isolates: need of the hour. J Res Biol. 2004; 4(1):1174-1181.
Umadevi S, Sailaja M. Evaluation of two different screening methods for detection of biofilm formation among the clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Int J Res Health Sci. 2014; 2:1080-1085.
Reddy KRM. Tube Adherence Test as a Screening Tool for Detection of Biofilm Formation among Staphylococcus aureus Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci. 2017; 6(8):1325-1329.
Knobloch J, Horstkotte M, Rhode H, Mack D. Evaluation of different detection methods for biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2002; 19:101-106. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00430-002-0124-3 PMid:12410349
Taj Y, Essa F, Aziz F, Kazmi S. Study on biofilm-forming properties of clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2012; 6:403-409. https://doi.org/10.3855/jidc.1743 PMid:22610706
Kaiser T, Menezes E, Regina K, et al. Modification of the Congo red agar method to detect biofilm production by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Diag Microbiol Inf Dis. 2013; 75:235â€“239. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2012.11.014 PMid:23313084
Nunes AP, Teixeira LM, Iorio NL, et al. Heterogeneous resistance to vancomycin in Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus warneri clinical strains: characterization of glycopeptide susceptibility profiles and cell wall thickening, Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2006; 27(4):307-315. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2005.11.013 PMid:16542825
Gazzola S. Cocconcelli PS. Vancomycin heteroresistance and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus epidermidis from food. Microbiology. 2008; 154:3224-3231. https://doi.org/10.1099/mic.0.2008/021154-0 PMid:18832327
Cargill JS, Upton M. Low concentrations of vancomycin stimulates biofilm formation in some clinical isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis. J Clin Pathol. 2009; 62:1112-1116. https://doi.org/10.1136/jcp.2009.069021 PMid:19640858
Cafiso V, Bertuccio T, Santagati M, et al. Presence of the ica operon in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis and its role in biofilm production. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2004; 10:1081-1088. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2004.01024.x PMid:15606635
Singh AK, Prakash P, Achra A, et al. Standardization and classification of in vitro biofilm formation by clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. J Glob Infect Dis. 2017; 9(3):93-101. https://doi.org/10.4103/jgid.jgid_91_16 PMid:28878520 PMCid:PMC5572203
Hashem AA, Abdel Fadeal NM, Shehata AS, et al. In vitro activity of vancomycin and linezolid against biofilm- producing methicillin-resistant staphylococci species isolated from catheter-related blood stream infections from an Egyptian tertiary hospital. J Med Microbiol. 2017; 66:744-752. https://doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.000490 PMid:28598310
All rights reserved.