Prevalence of Elder Abuse and Neglect: Findings from First Macedonian Study
OBJECTIVES: One of the study objectives was to explore the prevalence of elder abuse and neglect in the country.
METHOD: Total of 960 respondents aged 65 years and above (44.7% of male and 55.3%) in private households, from all eight statistical regions participated in the study. Respondents were sampled through three staged national representative sampling procedure. Data were collected using a cognitively validated questionnaire for investigating elder abuse and neglect (psychological abuse, physical abuse,Â physical injury; financial abuse; sexual abuse and neglect) and Geriatric Depression Scale. The MMSE test was used as a pre-selection method. Statistical significance was set up at p < 0.05.
RESULTS: Three hundred seven (32.0%) respondents reported experience of any type of abuse and neglect.Â A single form of abuse was reported by 56.4% of participants, and two types of abuse by 27.4% of participants reporting abuse. Data showed that psychological abuse was the most prevalent form of abuse (25.7%), followed by financial abuse (12.0%), physical abuse (5.7%), physical injury (3.1%) and sexual abuse, and reported only by females (1.3%). Some type of neglect was reported by 6.5% of respondents.CONCLUSIONS: Defining the phenomenon of elder abuse and neglect in the context of our country can facilitate support of abused older people and, most importantly, may help develop policy and programmes based on evidence-based practices, targeting prevention and response.
Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block
Burston RG. Granny-battering. BMJ. 1975:592.
World Health Organization. Forty-ninth World Health Assembly Resolution, WHA49.25 Prevention of violence: a public health priority. Geneva: WHO,1996.
Krug EG, Dahlberg LL, Mercy JA, Zwi AB, Lozano R, et al., eds. World report on violence and health. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2002.
Butchart A, Phinney A, Check P, Villaveces A. Preventing violence: a guide to implementing the recommendations of the World report on violence and health. Geneva: Department of Injuries and Violence Prevention, World Health Organization, 2004.
Sethi D, Wood S, Mitis F, et al., eds. European report on preventing elder maltreatment. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2011.
World Health Organization. Social development and ageing. Crisis or opportunity? Special panel at Geneva 2000. Geneva: WHO, 2000.
WHO. Definition of older or elderly person http://www.who.int/healthinfo/survey/ageingdefnolder/en/. Assessed February 7, 2014.
WHO/INPEA. Missing voices. Geneva:World Health Organisation; 2002. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2002/WHO_NMH_VIP_02.1.pdf. Accessed December 12, 2011.
National Committee for the prevention of elder abuse/MetLife Mature Market Institute. The essentials: Preventing elderly abuse. New York: NY, 2011.
Tozija F,Gjorgev D, Chichevalieva S. Report on violence and health in Macedonia and guide for prevention. Skopje: Ministry of Health, 2006.
Ministry of Labour and Social Policy. Annual report 2010. Skopje: Ministry of Labour and Social Policy, 2010.
State Statistical Office. Estimation of population on 30.06.2010 and 31.12.2010 according to the gender by municipality and statistical regions. Skopje: State Statistical Office, Republic of Macedonia, 2011. http://www.stat.gov.mk/publikacii/22.214.171.124.pdf. Accessed November 20, 2011.
Karolinska Institute. ABUEL, Abuse of elderly in Europe. Stockholm: Karolinska Institute; 2009. http://www.abuel.org/project.html. Accessed October 9, 2011.
National Institute for Health and Welfare THL. Prevalence study of violence and abuse against older women (AVOW). Helsinki: National Institute for Health and Welfare THL; 2010. http://www.thl.fi/avow. Accessed October 9, 2011.
Krsteska R. Mini Mental Test kaj Alchajmerova i vaskularna demencija. [Mini Mental Test in Alzheimer's and vascular dementia.]. Makedonski Medicinski Pregled [Macedonian Medical Review]. Skopje: University â€œSs Cyril and Methodiusâ€, 2007.
APA Committee on Aging. Life plan for the life span. Washington DC: APA; 2005. www.apa.org/pi/aging/lifespan-2008.pdf. Accessed September 15, 2012
Daly JM, Merchant ML, Jogerst GJ. Elder Abuse Research: A Systematic Review, Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect. 2011; 23:4, 348-65. doi:10.1080/08946566.2011.608048.
World Health Organization. The global response to elder abuse and neglect: building primary health care capacity to deal with the problem worldwide: main report. Geneva: WHO, 2008.
Lowenstein A, Eisikovits Z, Band-Winterstein T, Enosh G. Is elder abuse and neglect a social phenomenon? Data from the First National Prevalence Survey in Israel. J Elder Abuse Neglect. 2009;21:253â€“77.
Eisikovits Z, Winterstein T, Lowenstein A. The national survey on elder abuse and neglect in Israel. The Center for Research and Study on Ageing (National Insurance Institute), 2004.
Rabi K. Israeli perspectives on elder abuse. Educ Gerontol. 2006;32:49â€“62.
Oâ€™Keeffe M, Hills A, Doyle M, et al. UK study of abuse and neglect of older people. Prevalence study. Kingâ€™s College London and National Centre for Social Research. London, 2007.
Daskalopoulos M, Mullin ASJ, Donovan E, Suzuki H. English perceptions of elder abuse. Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect. 2006;18(2â€“3):33â€“50.
Biggs S, Manthorpe J, Tinker A, Doyle M, Erens B. Mistreatment of Older People in the United Kingdom: Findings from the First National Prevalence Study. Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect. 2009;21(1):1-14.
Kurrle S, Naughtin G. An overview of elder abuse and neglect in Australia. Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect. 2008; 20(2):108â€“25.
Wilson DM, Ratajewicz SE, Els C, Asirifi MA. Evidence-based approaches to remedy and also to prevent abuse of community-dwelling older persons. Nurs Res Pract. 2011; 861484. doi: 10.1155/2011/861484.
Luoma M-L, Koivusilta M, Lang G, et al. Prevalence Study of Abuse and Violence against Older Women. Results of a Multi-cultural Survey in Austria, Belgium, Finland, Lithuania, and Portugal (European Report of the AVOW Project). Finland: National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), 2011.
Ajdukovic M, Rusac S, Ogresta J. Izlozenost starijih osoba nasilju u obitelji [Exposure of elderly to family violence]. Revija za socijalnu politiku [Journal of Social Policy]. 2008;15(1):3â€“22.
Soares JJF, Barros H, Torres-Gonzales F, et al. Abuse and health in Europe. Kaunas: Lithuanian University of Health Sciences Press, 2010.
Walsh CA, Yon Y. Developing an empirical profile for elder abuse research in Canada. Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect. 2012;24 (2):104-119.
Yan E, Tang CSK. Prevalence and psychological impact of Chinese elder abuse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 2001;16(11):1158â€“74.
Vasilvevich P. Elder abuse: current research in the Russian Federation (2004â€“2006). Journal of Adult Protection. 2006;8(4):4â€“12.
National Center on Elder Abuse at the American Public Human Services Association. The National Elder Abuse Incidence Study. Final Report. Washington, DC, National Center on Elder Abuse at the American Public Human Services Association, Westat Inc., 1998.
Tatara, T. Toward development of estimates of the national incidence of elder abuse based on currently available data: an exploratory study. In: Filison RR, Ingman SR, eds. Elder abuse: practice and policy. New York: Human Sciences Press, 1989:153â€“65.
All rights reserved.