The Most Common New Cases of Breast Cancer among the Housewives: The Some Carcinogenic Determinants

  • Nurka Pranjić Department of Occupational Medicine, Medical Faculty, University of Tuzla, Univerzitetska 1, 75000 Tuzla
  • Ibrahim Gledo Department of Family Medicine, Health Care Faculty, University of Zenica, Crkvice 67, 72000 Zenica
  • Ljiljana MaleÅ¡-Bilić Department of Occupational Medicine, School of Medicine, Banja Luka University, School of Medicine, 78000 Banja Luka
Keywords: breast cancer, environmental, occupational and social determinants, arival time of menopause, housewives.


BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have observed risk factors for breast cancer. We aimed to investigate and assess the relationship between individual, social, occupational and environmental determinants of breast cancer using a questionnaire among 100 newly diagnosed female breast cancer patients and 100 control female subjects without cancer.

METHODS: A case-control study using a family ambulatory based survey was conducted among 200 female patients from all municipalities of Zenica - Doboj Canton. New cases of breast cancer among subjects of experimental group (n = 100) were diagnosed between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2007 using the institutional clinical procedure for breast cancer diagnosis. Data were obtained using a self - rated questionnaire specially designed for this research. The questionnaire contains a group of questions about individual and demographic data, occupational and environment characteristics, reproductive hystory, body mass index, life style and quality life factors.

RESULTS: Fifty two percent of our examinees with breast cancer are housewives. There were no significant differences between the two groups and their subgroups except for prevalence of routine physical activity (P = 0.016), unemployment (P = 0.004), history arrival menopause (P = 0.012), and type of occupation/ workplace (P = 0.015) among subjects with breast cancer in relation to control subjects. We found significantly higher prevalence for failure to routine physical activity (P = 0.006), obesity (P = 0.009), unemployment (P = 0.001), unsecure existence (P = 0.015), and low level of education (P = 0.001) in housewives in relationship to others occupation.

CONCLUSION: The most common new cases of breast cancer were among housewife. Inverse significantly link between breast cancer and poverty, arrival time of menopause and distant-cousin- degree family history were found. For most women, physical activity may reduce the risk of invasive breast cancer.


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How to Cite
Pranjić N, Gledo I, Maleš-Bilić L. The Most Common New Cases of Breast Cancer among the Housewives: The Some Carcinogenic Determinants. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2014Jun.15 [cited 2020Oct.26];2(2):344-9. Available from:
E - Public Health