Kidney Diseases and COVID-19 Pandemic – A Review Article
In December 2019, first cases of a novel coronavirus were identified in Wuhan, China. A state of global pandemic was shortly declared among a very rapid contagious spread of the virus. The causative virus was identified as the SARS-CoV-2 viruses and is genetically related to the previous SARS outbreak in 2003. The virus causes a wide clinical spectrum from mild flu-like symptoms to adult respiratory distress syndrome. Kidney involvement has been reported in several reports in patients with various degrees of severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. As knowledge is evolving, the accurate incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) is not known. Many questions are yet to be answered regarding the effect of epidemiological variables and comorbidities on the occurrence of AKI. Some reports have observed the occurrence of hematuria and proteinuria in a percentage of infected patients. Moreover, chronic kidney disease has not been found, in some reports to add to the adverse outcomes, an aspect that merits further exploration. Patients on regular hemodialysis may be vulnerable to coronavirus infection due to the lower status of immunity and the need for frequent attendance at health-care facilities. Due to the previous factors, prevention and mitigation of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, in this vulnerable population, constitutes a major challenge.
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