Alcohol Use Disorder is Associated with an Increased Risk for Respiratory Failure among Patients with Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy
BACKGROUND: While takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) was initially considered a benign disease, recent studies have demonstrated poor cardiovascular outcomes. It is important to determine the predictors of these outcomes for appropriate risk stratification and to decrease the overall disease burden. Physical stressors (e.g., acute neurologic disorder and lung disorder) and pre-existing heart failure have been associated with worse outcomes. Alcohol abuse has been associated with cardiomyopathy and may also exacerbate pre-existing heart conditions.
AIM: We aimed to determine the impact of alcohol abuse on patients with TCM.
METHODS: We identified 11,221 patients from the 2009 to 2012 National Inpatient Sample, of which 10,622 had TCM alone and 599 had TCM and alcohol use disorder (AUD). Our outcomes of interest were overall mortality, need for mechanical hemodynamic support (MHS), acute respiratory failure, sudden cardiac arrest, cardiogenic shock, stroke, and atrial fibrillation. All clinical characteristics were defined per the International Classification of Diseases 9th revision codes. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios of the outcomes in patients with concomitant TCM and AUD, compared to those with TCM without AUD while adjusting for confounders.
RESULTS: The mean age of the sample was 60.5 ± 11 for TCM with AUD and 56.0 ± 11 for TCM alone. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the rates of atrial fibrillation (10.4% vs. 8,5%; p = 0.134), cardiogenic shock (5.9% vs. 4.8%; p = 0.3), use of MHS (2.6% vs. 1.7%; p = 0.165), overall in-hospital mortality (4.0% vs. 3.7%; p = 0.691), stroke (1.6% vs. 1.3%; p = 0.593), and sudden cardiac arrest (2.7% vs. 3.5%; p = 0.24). Rates of acute respiratory failure (17.7% vs. 25.2%; p < 0.0001) were significantly higher in patients with TCM with AUD compared to those with TCM alone. After adjusting for significant cofounders, the odds ratio for respiratory failure among patients with concomitant TCM and AUD was 1.36 (95% CI: 1.11–1.66) compared to those with TCM without AUD.
CONCLUSION: Pre-existing AUD is associated with an increased risk for respiratory failure in a patient with TCM.
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