The Association between Cyanotic and Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease with Nutritional Status
BACKGROUND: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common birth anomalies in the 1st year of life. The incidence of CHD in developed and developing countries is varied, between 6 and 10 cases per 1000 live birth. Some factors contribute to the nutritional status of CHD patients, such as nutrient inputs, energy requirements, and dietary components. Irrespective of the nature of the cardiac defect and the presence or absence of cyanosis, malnutrition is a common finding in children with congenital heart anomalies. Recent studies have tried to investigate malnutrition development based on the type or category of CHD.
AIM: This study aims to investigate the association between cyanotic and acyanotic CHD with nutritional status.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to March 2018 in the pediatric cardiology outpatient clinic of the Haji Adam Malik General Hospital, Medan, Indonesia.
RESULTS: During the study period, 58 children were admitted, consisting of 31 (53.4%) males and 27 (46.6%) females, with a mean age of 57 months. There was no significant sex predilection found in the study (p = 0.207). The proportion of patients who developed malnutrition was 70.7% (mild-moderate = 48.3% and severe = 22.4%). There was an association between cyanotic and acyanotic CHD with nutritional status (p = 0.015). Wasting was found in 33 children (56.8%) that had a significant association with the type of heart defects (p = 0.001). Patients with cyanotic CHDs were found to have a lower risk for malnutrition compared to the acyanotic group (prevalence odds ratio = 0.218, and prevalence risk = 0.661; p = 0.015).
CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between cyanotic and acyanotic CHD with nutritional status.
Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block
Washeel OF, Maaka EG. Nutritional status of children with congenital heart disease. Int J Pharm Sci Res. 2019;10(2):933-8. PMid:17724421
Arodiwe I, Chinawa J, Ujunwa F, Adiele D, Ukoha M, Obidike E. Nutritional status of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) attending university of Nigeria teaching hospital Ituku- Ozalla, Enugu. Pak J Med Sci. 2015;31(5):1140-45. https://doi. org/10.12669/pjms.315.6837 PMid:26649002
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Use and Interpretation of the WHO and CDC Growth Charts for Children from Birth to 20 Years in the United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2013. p. 2-5. https://doi.org/10.1093/ ofid/ofv131.60
Costello CL, Gellatly M, Daniel J, Justo RN, Weir K. Growth restriction in infants and young children with congenital heart disease. Congenit Heart Dis. 2015;10:447-56. https://doi. org/10.1111/chd.12231
Itkin M, Piccoli DA, Nadolski G, Rychik J, DeWitt A, Pinto E, et al. Protein-losing enteropathy in patients with congenital heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017;69(24):2929-37. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.jacc.2017.04.023 PMid:28619193
Medoff-Cooper B, Ravishankar C. Nutrition and growth in congenital heart disease: A challenge in children. Curr Opin Cardiol. 2013;28(2):122-9. PMid:23370229
Larson-Nath C, Goday P. Malnutrition in children with chronic disease. Nutr Clin Pract. 2019;34(3):349-58. PMid:30963628
Argent AC, Balachandran R, Vaidyanathan B, Khan A, Kumar K. Management of undernutrition and failure to thrive in children with congenital heart disease in low and middle-income countries. Cardiol Young. 2017;27(Suppl 6):S22-30. https://doi. org/10.1017/s104795111700258x PMid:29198259
Hassan BA, Albanna EA, Morsy SM, Siam AG, Al Shafie MM, Elsaadany HF, et al. Nutritional status in children with un-operated congenital heart disease: An Egyptian center experience. Front Pediatr. 2015;3(53):1-5. https://doi. org/10.3389/fped.2015.00053 PMid:26125014
Tume LN, Balmaks R, Cruz E, Latten L, Verbruggen S, Valla FV, et al. Enteral feeding practices in infants with congenital heart disease across European PICUs. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(2):137-44. https://doi.org/10.1097/ pcc.0000000000001412 PMid:29206731
Indramohan G, Pedigo TP, Rostoker N, Cambare M, Grogan T, Federman MD. Identification of risk factors for poor feeding in infants with congenital heart disease and a novel approach to improve oral feeding. J Pediatr Nurs. 2017;35:149-54. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.pedn.2017.01.009 PMid:28169036
Mehrizi A, Drash A. Growth disturbance in congenital heart disease. J Pediatr. 1962;61:418-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/ s0022-3476(62)80373-4 PMid:14472142
Tokel K, Azka E, Ayabakan C, Varan B, Aslamaci SA, Mercan S. Somatic growth after corrective surgery for conenital heart disease. Turk J Pediatr. 2010;52(1):58-67. PMid:20402068
Okoromah CA, Ekure EN, Lesi FE, Okunowo WO, Tijani BO, Okeiyi JC. Prevalence, profile and predictors of malnutrition in children with congenital heart defects: A case-ontrol observational study. Arch Dis Childhood. 2011;96(4):354-60. https://doi.org/10.1136/adc.2009.176644 PMid:21266339
Unger R, DeKleermaeker M, Gidding SS, Christoffel KK. Improved weight gain with dietary intervention in congenital heart disease. Am J Dis Children. 1992;146(9):1078-84. https:// doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.1992.02160210080026 PMid:1514555
Krieger I. Growth failure and congenital heart disease. Am J Dis Children. 1970;120:497-502.
Copyright (c) 2020 Putri Amelia, Rizky Adriansyah, Bastian Lubis, Muhammad Akil (Author)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
All rights reserved.