The Effect of Progesterone Therapy in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Patients on Serum Levels of s-100β, Interleukin 6, and Aquaporin-4

  • Mahyudanil Mahyudanil Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Sumatera Utara – Central General Hospital Haji Adam Malik Medan, Indonesia
  • A. H. Bajamal Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine Airlangga University – Central General Hospital Dr. Soetomo Surabaya, Indonesia
  • R. J. Sembiring Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Sumatera Utara – Central General Hospital Haji Adam Malik Medan, Indonesia
  • R. Dharmajaya Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Sumatera Utara – Central General Hospital Haji Adam Malik Medan, Indonesia
Keywords: Traumatic Brain Injur, S-100β, IL-6, AQ-4, Glasgow outcome scale


BACKGROUND: Severe TBI is leading in death and disability worldwide. The initial stage resulted from direct tissue damage and impaired autoregulation of cerebral blood flow. The level of S-100β, IL-6 and AQ4 in CSF increased in neuronal injury and BBB damage. PROG effect is assessed on biomarkers of S-100β, IL-6, and AQP4.

AIM: The study examined the 1st to 4th day of progesterone administration.

METHODS: The sample consisted of 23 participants in the control group and 16 participants in the treated group. Patients with GCS 4–8, not surgical, aged 15-50 years, coming in the first 24 h and patient’s family agreed to this research are included. The sample was taken from the serum, and the biomarker processed using ELISA. GOS 3 months used as prognostic.

RESULTS: The result showed the mean value serum level of S100β, AQP4, and IL-6 increased on 24 h and 96 h after given PROG. Change of mean value of S100β day to day was 44.75 (96 h)–40.57 (24 h) – 4.18. In control group, change of S100β decrease to 42.51 (96 h)–46.11 (24 h) = −3.60, showing effect still unclearly proven in repairing neuronal injury, BBB disruption or another consideration on concentration of S100β, AQP4, and IL-6 in serum.

CONCLUSION: S-100β serum levels is significant to predict outcome of severe TBI. Progesterone still unclearly proven in repairing neuronal injury and/or BBB disruption. Another consideration is temporal trajectory of S100β, AQP4, and IL-6. In future study, natural endogenous PROG should be sought. S-100β in future pharmaceutical trials may be possible as pharmacological target.


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How to Cite
Mahyudanil M, Bajamal AH, Sembiring RJ, Dharmajaya R. The Effect of Progesterone Therapy in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Patients on Serum Levels of s-100β, Interleukin 6, and Aquaporin-4. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2020May1 [cited 2020Oct.31];8(B):236-44. Available from: