The Effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Gene Polymorphisms in the Coronary Slow Flow Phenomenon at South Sumatra, Indonesia Population
BACKGROUND: The coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP) is believed to be affected by endothelial dysfunction ruled by renin, angiotensin, aldosterone, and the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). The gene of ACE has been characterized in humans by a major insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism. Serum ACE levels were associated with I/D polymorphism in the ACE-encoding gene.
AIM: This study explored and analyzed the role of ACE gene polymorphism risk factors with the incidence of CSFP in the population of South Sumatra, Indonesia.
METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional analytic observational study. A total of 112 CSFP and non- CSFP patients participated in this study. Blood was obtained from the study subjects then processed. Angiotensin I and aldosterone levels were examined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The Judkins method was used in the assessment of coronary angiography, which was carried out through the femoral artery. For the examination of ACE I/D polymorphisms, genome deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted from blood cells (leukocytes), using the Wizard’s purification system and examined using the polymerase chain reaction method. All data were evaluated through the Chi-square test, two samples t-test, and Mann–Whitney U-test. All tests used two-sided significance and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
RESULTS: ACE I/D gene polymorphism possessed a significant effect in increasing the risk of CSFP. Genotype II polymorphism increased the risk of CSFP as much as 6.9 times compared to individuals with ID/DD genotype. The existence of allele I increased the risk of CSFP 5.7 times compared to allele D. Levels of angiotensin I and aldosterone were increased significantly in patients with CSFP.
CONCLUSION: ACE I/D gene polymorphism possessed a significant effect in increasing the risk of CSFP. Genotype of II was the risk factor for the development of CSFP in population of South Sumatra, Indonesia.
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