Maternal Anemia Prevalence and Subsequent Neonatal Complications in Iraq
BACKGROUND: Anemia during pregnancy is still a challenge throughout the world, and it may cause severe health consequences in the maternal and fetal sides.
AIM: This study aims to find out the prevalence of maternal anemia and potential adverse outcomes in Iraq.
METHODS: In Medical City Tertiary Center in Baghdad, singleton pregnant ladies came for delivery were involved over 6 monthsâ€™ period. Based on hemoglobin (Hb) readings; they were divided into no anemia group (Hb>11 g/l) and anemia group which were further subdivided into mild, moderate, and severe (Hb =10â€“10.9, =7.1â€“9.9, and <7 g/l, respectively). Full history and examination were performed by attending obstetrician and pediatrician for the upcoming babies.
RESULTS: Maternal anemia prevalence was 84.84% out of 4473 cases. No anemia group was 15.16%, mild 40.73%, and moderate 40.73%, while severe anemia group (24.93%). Maternal occupation, educational status, and Hb levels were significantly associated with anemia (p < 0.001), unlike parity, body mass index, and delivery mode. Neonatal preterm delivery, birth weight and length, small for gestational age (SGA), Apgar score, respiratory distress, and high death rate were strongly related to mothersâ€™ anemia (p < 0.001), on the contrary of septicemia, birth asphyxia, and hypoglycemia, in spite of their higher frequency rates in anemia groups. Birth weight, and length, and gestational age were lowered significantly in moderate and severe anemia, while Apgar score was low throughout all anemia categories. SGA was significant in severe anemia.
CONCLUSION: Maternal anemia is highly prevalent in Iraq with significant adverse neonatal events and elevated rates of mortality.
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