Correlation of Capute Scores with CD4 Count among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected Children in Sanglah Hospital, Bali, Indonesia

  • I. Nyoman Supadma Department of Paediatric, Famili Husada Hospital, Gianyar, Bali, Indonesia
  • Putu Indah Budiapsari Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Warmadewa University, Denpasar, Indonesia
  • Ketut Dewi Kumara Wati Department of Child Health, Sanglah Hospital, Udayana University, Bali, Indonesia
  • I. Wayan Dharma Artana Department of Child Health, Sanglah Hospital, Udayana University, Bali, Indonesia
Keywords: hiv, child, capute score


BACKGROUND: Cognitive, motoric, and language development in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected child is an important issue that affects developmental milestone and quality of life. The effect of HIV infection on cognitive function must be detected early to prevent delayed cognitive, motoric, and language function.

AIM: This study aimed to assess the correlation of cognitive scores with CD4 count among HIV-infected children in pediatrics polyclinic Sanglah Hospital, Bali.

METHODS: This cross-sectional study recruited 68 HIV-infected children age 0–36 months old as participants. Cognitive score was assessed using Cognitive Adaptive Test/Clinical Linguistic and Auditory Milestone Scale (CAT/CLAMS) scores and HIV status, and CD4 count was obtained from the medical record.

RESULTS: The result showed that mean of CD4 count among subject was 29.85 cells/mm3, there was positive correlation between CAT scores with CD4 count (r = 0.33, p = 0.006) and also between CLAMS scores with CD4 count (r = 0.307, p = 0.01).

CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that CD4 count correlated with Capute scores on HIV-infected children.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block


Van Rie A, Harrington PR, Dow A, Robertson K. Neurologic and neurodevelopmental manifestations of pediatric HIV/AIDS: A global perspective. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2007;11(1):1-9. PMid:17137813

Vanprapar N, Kongstan N, Tritilanant P, Kottapat U, Durier Y, Tritilanant S. Developmental screening by the cognitive adaptive test/clinical linguistic and auditory milestone scale (CAT/CLAMS) in HIV-infected children. J Med Assoc Thai. 2005;88 Suppl 8:S211-4. PMid:16856442

Tahan TT, Bruck I, Burger M, Cruz CR. Neurological profile and neurodevelopment of 88 children infected with HIV and 84 seroreverter children followed from 1995 to 2002. Braz J Infect Dis. 2006;10(5):322-6. PMid:17293919

Andrade AS, Deutsch R, A Celano S, Duarte NA, Marcotte TD, Umlauf A, et al. Relationships among neurocognitive status, medication adherence measured by pharmacy refill records, and virologic suppression in HIV-infected persons. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013;62(3):282-92. PMid:23202813

Thomaidis L, Bertou G, Critselis E, Spoulou V, Kafetzis DA, Theodoridou M. Cognitive and psychosocial development of HIV pediatric patients receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy: A case-control study. BMC Pediatr. 2010;10:99.

Caravale B, Tozzi C, Albino G, Vicari S. Cognitive development in low risk preterm infants at 3-4 years of life. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2005;90(6):F474-9. PMid:15956096

Masyeni S, Sintya E, Megawati D, Sukmawati NM, Budiyasa DG, Aryastuti SA, et al. Evaluation of antiretroviral effect on mitochondrial DNA depletion among HIV-infected patients in Bali. HIV AIDS (Auckl). 2018;10:145-50. PMid:30104903

Bruck I, Tahan TT, Cruz CR, Martins LT, Antoniuk SA, Rodrigues M, et al. Developmental milestones of vertically HIV infected and seroreverters children: Follow up of 83 children. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2001;59(3-B):691-5. PMid:11593266

Lindsey JC, Malee KM, Brouwers P, Hughes MD, PACTG 219C Study Team. Neurodevelopmental functioning in HIV-infected infants and young children before and after the introduction of protease inhibitor-based highly active antiretroviral therapy. Pediatrics. 2007;119(3):e681-93. PMid:17296781

Nakasujja N, Allebeck P, Agren H, Musisi S, Katabira E. Cognitive dysfunction among HIV positive and HIV negative patients with psychosis in Uganda. PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e44415. PMid:22970214

Khairunisa SQ, Masyeni S, Witaningrum AM, Yunifiar MQ, Indriati DW, Kotaki T. Genotypic characterization of human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 isolated in Bali Indonesia in 2016. HIV AIDS Rev. 2018;17:81-90.

Kerr SJ, Puthanakit T, Vibol U, Aurpibul L, Vonthanak S, Kosalaraksa P, et al. Neurodevelopmental outcomes in HIV-exposed-uninfected children versus those not exposed to HIV. AIDS Care. 2014;26(11):1327-35. PMid:24878112

Ngoma MS, Hunter JA, Harper JA, Church PT, Mumba S, Chandwe M, et al. Cognitive and language outcomes in HIV-uninfected infants exposed to combined antiretroviral therapy in utero and through extended breast-feeding. AIDS. 2014;28 Suppl 3:S323-30. PMid:24991905

Igumbor J, Stewart A, Holzemer W. Comparison of the health-related quality of life, CD4 count and viral load of AIDS patients and people with HIV who have been on treatment for 12 months in rural South Africa. SAHARA J. 2013;10(1):25-31. PMid:23777555

Nozyce ML, Lee SS, Wiznia A, Nachman S, Mofenson LM, Smith ME, et al. A behavioral and cognitive profile of clinically stable HIV-infected children. Pediatrics. 2006;117(3):763-70. PMid:16510656

Puren A, Gerlach JL, Weigl BH, Kelso DM, Domingo GJ. Laboratory operations, specimen processing, and handling for viral load testing and surveillance. J Infect Dis. 2010;201 Suppl 1:S27-36. PMid:20225943

Rice ML, Buchanan AL, Siberry GK, Malee KM, Zeldow B, Frederick T, et al. Language impairment in children perinatally infected with HIV compared to children who were HIV-exposed and uninfected. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2012;33(2):112-23. PMid:22179050

Wojna V, Skolasky RL, Hechavarría R, Mayo R, Selnes O, McArthur JC, et al. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus-associated cognitive impairment in a group of Hispanic women at risk for neurological impairment. J Neurovirol. 2006;12(5):356-64. PMid:17065128

Witaningrum AM, Khairunisa SQ, Ueda S, Yunifiar MQ, Indriati DW, Kotaki T, et al. Viral subtyping of HIV-1 derived from infected, drug-naïve individual in Jakarta, Indonesia. IOP Conf Ser. 2018;434:012321.

How to Cite
Supadma IN, Budiapsari PI, Wati KDK, Artana IWD. Correlation of Capute Scores with CD4 Count among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected Children in Sanglah Hospital, Bali, Indonesia. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2020Mar.15 [cited 2020Oct.23];8(B):45-8. Available from:
Infective Diseases