Exploring the Relationship between Body Mass Index and Anxiety Status Among Ahlia University Students
BACKGROUND: Mood disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive-compulsive disorders, and other mental disorders could be due to obesity which is a prevalent condition among majority of population nowadays, whereas changes in anxiety level of individuals are also thought to have an influence on body mass index (BMI).
AIM: The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between BMI and anxiety status among Ahlia University students.
METHODS: A total of 80 male and female students from different colleges of Ahlia University were included in our study. Their ages ranged between 18 and 25 years old with different BMI. The students were asked to fill a (GAD 7 scale) questionnaire related to anxiety level; their BMI was calculated.
RESULTS: There was a significant relationship between BMI and anxiety status (negative correlation) (p < 0.019).
CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that BMI is inversely proportional to anxiety level, the reduction in BMI level is linked with elevated anxiety level and vice versa.
Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block
Gatineau M, Dent M. Obesity and Mental Health. United Kingdom, Oxford: National Obesity Observatory; 2011.
Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Page GG, Marucha PT, MacCallum RC, Glaser R. Psychological influences on surgical recovery. Perspectives from psychoneuroimmunology. Am Psychol. 1998;53(11):1209-18. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066x.53.11.1209 PMid:9830373
Sobocki P, Ekman M, Agren H, Krakau I, Runeson B, MÃ¥rtensson B, et al. Health-related quality of life measured with EQ-5D in patients treated for depression in primary care. Value Health. 2007;10(2):153-60. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-4733.2006.00162.x PMid:17391424
Keys A, Fidanza F, Karvonen MJ, Kimura N, Taylor HL. Indices of relative weight and obesity. Int J Epidemiol. 2014;43(3):655-65. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyu058 PMid:24691951
Nuttall FQ. Body mass index: Obesity, BMI, and health: A critical review. Nutr Today. 2015;50(3):117-28. PMid:27340299
Gallagher D, Visser M, SepÃºlveda D, Pierson RN, Harris T, Heymsfield SB. How useful is body mass index for comparison of body fatness across age, sex, and ethnic groups? Am J Epidemiol. 1996;143(3):228-39. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a008733 PMid:8561156
World Health Organization; 2006. Available from: https://www.euro.who.int/HEN/Syntheses/short/20040908_1. [Last accessed 2019 May 04].
Zhang Y, Daquinag A, Traktuev DO, Amaya-Manzanares F, Simmons PJ, March KL, et al. White adipose tissue cells are recruited by experimental tumors and promote cancer progression in mouse models. Cancer Res. 2009;69(1):5259-66. https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.can-08-3444 PMid:19491274
Gharib NM, Rasheed P. Obesity among Bahraini children and adolescents: Prevalence and associated factors. J bahrain Med Soc. 2008;20:114-23.
Cohen SS, Signorello LB, Cope EL, McLaughlin JK, Hargreaves MK, Zheng W, et al. Obesity and all-cause mortality among black adults and white adults. Am J Epidemiol. 2012;176(5):431-42. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kws032 PMid:22822174
Flegal KM, Kit BK, Orpana H, Graubard BI. Association of all-cause mortality with overweight and obesity using standard body mass index categories: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2013;309(1):71-82. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2012.113905 PMid:23280227
Bray GA. Medical consequences of obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89(6):2583-9. PMid:15181027
Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, Curtin LR. Prevalence Tanatwy et al. Relationship between Body Mass Index and Anxiety Statusand trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2008. JAMA. 2010;303(3):235-41. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2009.2014 PMid:20071471
Flegal KM, Kruszon-Moran D, Carroll MD, Fryar CD, Ogden CL. Trends in obesity among adults in the United States, 2005 to 2014. JAMA. 2016;315(21):2284-91. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2016.6458 PMid:27272580
Stunkard AJ, Faith MS, Allison KC. Depression and obesity. Biol Psychiatry. 2003;54(3):330-7. PMid:12893108
Dong C, Sanchez LE, Price RA. Relationship of obesity to depression: A family-based study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004;28(6):790-5. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0802626 PMid:15024401
Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JB. Validation and utility of a self-report version of PRIME-MD: The PHQ primary care study. Primary Care evaluation of mental disorders. Patient health questionnaire. JAMA. 1999;282(18):1737-44. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.282.18.1737 PMid:10568646
Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JB, LÃ¶we B. A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: The GAD-7. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(10):1092-7. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.166.10.1092 PMid:16717171
Faravelli C, Guerrini Deglâ€™Innocenti B, Giardinelli L. Epidemiology of anxiety disorders in Florence. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1989;79(4):308-12. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1989.tb10263.x PMid:2786666
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2000.
Carter RM, Wittchen HU, Pfister H, Kessler RC. One-year prevalence of subthreshold and threshold DSM-IV generalized anxiety disorder in a nationally representative sample. Depress Anxiety. 2001;13(2):78-88. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.1020 PMid:11301924
McCaulay M, Mintz L, Glenn AA. Body image, self-esteem, and depression-proneness: Closing the gender gap. Sex Roles. 1998;18:381-91. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00288390
Crisp AH, McGuiness B. Jolly fat: Relation between obesity and psychoneurosis in general population. Br Med J. 1976;1(6000):7-9. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.6000.7 PMid:1247732
Ross CE. Overweight and depression. J Health Soc Behav. 1994;35(1):63-79. PMid:8014430
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.4th ed. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1996. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0033291700035765
Lawlor DA, Hart CL, Hole DJ, Gunnell D, Davey Smith G. Body mass index in middle life and future risk of hospital admission for psychoses or depression: Findings from the Renfrew/ Paisley study. Psychol Med. 2007;37(8):1151-61. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0033291707000384 PMid:17407616
Han TS, Tijhuis MA, Lean ME, Seidell JC. Quality of life in relation to overweight and body fat distribution. Am J Public Health. 1998;88(12):1814-20. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.88.12.1814 PMid:9842379
Terracciano A, Sutin AR, McCrae RR, Deiana B, Ferrucci L, Schlessinger D, et al. Facets of personality linked to underweight and overweight. Psychosom Med. 2009;71(6):682-9. https://doi.org/10.1097/psy.0b013e3181a2925b PMid:19414622
Yackobovitch-Gavan M, Meshy-Tamir R, Nagelberg N, Phillip M, Meyerovitch J. Psychosocial factors associated with depressive mood in Israeli obese adolescents. J Health Psychol. 2014;19(4):574-84. https://doi. org/10.1177/1359105313475901 PMid:23479303
Simon GE, Von Korff M, Saunders K, Miglioretti DL, Crane PK, van Belle G, et al. Association between obesity and psychiatric disorders in the US adult population. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006;63(7):824-30. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.63.7.824 PMid:16818872
Luppino FS, de Wit LM, Bouvy PF, Stijnen T, Cuijpers P, Penninx BW, et al. Overweight, obesity, and depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010;67(3):220-9. https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.2 PMid:20194822
Istvan JA, Cunningham TW, Garfinkel L. Cigarette smoking and body weight in the cancer prevention study I. Int J Epidemiol. 1992;21(5):849-53. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/21.5.849 PMid:1468844
Sutin AR, Ferrucci L, Zonderman AB, Terracciano A. Personality and obesity across the adult life span. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2011;101(3):579-92. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024286 PMid:21744974
Zhao G, Ford ES, Dhingra S, Li C, Strine TW, Mokdad AH. Depression and anxiety among US adults: Associations with body mass index. Int J Obes (Lond). 2009;33(2):257-66. https://doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2008.268 PMid:19125163
Orbach S. Fat is a Feminist Issue. New York: Paddington Press; 1978.
Jansen A, Nederkoorn C, van Baak L, Keirse C, Guerrieri R, Havermans R. High-restrained eaters only overeat when they are also impulsive. Behav Res Ther. 2009;47(2):105-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2008.10.016 PMid:19038379
National Institutes of Health. Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults--the evidence report. National institutes of health. Obes Res. 1998;6 Suppl 2:51S-209S. PMid:9813653
Copyright (c) 2020 Sayed Tantawy, Nada Ikram Karamat, Rana Sulaiman Al Gannas, Sara Abdulrahman Khadem, Dalia M. Kamel (Author)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
All rights reserved.