Interleukin-6, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, and High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein in Diabetic Patients with Helicobacter pylori in Kosovo
Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative spiral-shaped bacterium that infects from 30% to 50% of the world’s population and it is one of the most important in dyspeptic syndrome causes of gastritis and peptic ulcer. H. pylori is one of the most common chronic bacterial infections especially in the development countries because the socioeconomic contribute to chronic disease. The infection induces an acute polymorphonuclear infiltration in the gastric mucosa. Infection with H. pylori has been epidemiologically linked to some extra digestive conditions, including ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus (DM), and others. The patients with DM are at risk for H. pylori infection, since they have coupled susceptibility of to a wide range of infections as a result of chronic elevation of blood glucose level and impairment of immune functions. Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for coronary heart disease, because inflammation, vascular injury and thrombosis are considered to cause atherosclerosis. The risk of cardiovascular events is associated with increased levels of the acute phase proteins, C-reactive protein (CRP), and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Interleukin 6 (IL-6), a major pro-inflammatory cytokine is produced in a variety of tissues, including activated leukocytes, adipocytes, and endothelial cells. CRP is the principal downstream mediator of the acute phase response and is primarily derived through IL-6-dependent hepatic biosynthesis. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as an important inflammatory factor, has been shown to play a central role in the pathogenesis of diabetes. CRP and IL-6 were determinant of risk for the development of type 2 DM in apparently healthy middle-aged women. Since the prevalence of infected persons with H. pylori in Kosovo is high, the aim of this study was the evaluation of cytokines (IL1, TNF-α) and CRP in diabetic type 2 patients with positive H. pylori.
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