- colorectal cancer,
- FOB test,
- algorithm of screening for colorectal cancer
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Sanja Sazdovska
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important public health problem, especially in Europe. Every year approximately 435,000 new cases are being diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Half of these people die, which makes this type of cancer a second-rated mortality cause in Europe. The main aim of this paper was to make a literature search related to colorectal cancer with a focus on the developed Western European countries and countries close to the Republic of North Macedonia.
This paper also intended to provide a picture of the early screening for colorectal cancer as the most efficient method for prevention and early detection of colorectal cancer and its application in some developed countries. For achieving the objectives set out in this paper, a survey of the available literature (both electronic and print) as well as of the grey literature was made. A systematic search of the following databases was made: PubMed, European Commission, and Google Scholar. The inclusion criteria were studies conducted between 2008 and 2020, with an emphasis on the newest studies and those published in the neighboring countries. According to the WHO recommendations and practices in modern countries, colorectal cancer should be identified as a serious public health problem. This includes unclear cause of its occurrence, as well as all possible risk factors which make it almost possible to implement an adequate prevention program.
The most acceptable sensitive test for implementation of the screening program for colorectal cancer is the utilization of the FOB test. It is of great importance to follow-up patients with a positive FOB test as well as to offer easy access to health services, i.e., screening program to the population.
- Hofstad B. Colon Polyps: Prevalence Rates, Incidence Rates, and Growth Rates. In Colonoscopy: Principles and Practice, 1 edn, Waye J, Rex DK, & Williams CB (eds.), 2003 Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, pp. 358-376.
- Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E, Hao Y, Xu J, Murray T, Thun MJ. Cancer statistics, 2008. CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2008; 58(2): 71-96.
- Whiting P, Rutjes AW, Reitsma JB, Bossuyt PM, Kleijnen J (2003). The development of QUADAS: a tool for the quality assessment of studies of diagnostic accuracy included in systematic reviews, BMC Med Res Methodol.2003; (3): 25.
- Merzenich H, Giersiepen K, Kieschke J, Zeeb H. Früherkennung kolorektaler Tumoren: Gibt es die optimale Screeningmassnahme? [Screening for colorectal cancer: what is the most effective strategy?]. Gesundheitswesen. 2005 Nov;67(11):803-8.
- Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Guidelines for the management of colorectal cancer, 2003. Available at http://www.sign.ac.uk/pdf/sign67.pdf.
- Brenner H, Hoffmeister M, Arndt V, Stegmaier C, Altenhofen L, Haug U. Protection from right- and left sided colorectal neoplasms after colonoscopy: population-based study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2010; 102 (2): 89-95.
- Wilson JMG, Jungner G. Principles and practice of screening for disease. 1968WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, Report no. 34. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/php/WHO_PHP_34.pdf
- Council of the European Union. Council conclusions on reducing the burden of cancer. 2008, 2876 th Employment, Social Policy, Health and Consumer Affairs Council meeting. Luxembourg, 9-10 June 2008 Press Office of the Council of the European Union; 10 June 2008, Brussels, Belgium, Report no. 10414/08(Presse 166).
- European guidelines for quality assurance in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis First Edition, Segnan N, Patnick J, von Karsa L (eds), 2010 Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union ISBN 978-92-79-16435-4 (printed version) ISBN 978-92-79-16574-0 (CD-version)
- Council of the European Union. Council Recommendation of 2 December 2003 on cancer screening(2003/878/EC), Off J Eur Union no. L 327, pp. 34-38.
- Hurlstone DP, Karajeh MA, Shorthouse AJ. Screening for colorectal cancer: implications for UK and European initiatives. Tech Coloproctol. 2004; 8(3):139-45.
- Hurlstone DP, Karajeh MA, Shorthouse AJ. Screening for colorectal cancer: implications for UK and European initiatives. Tech Coloproctol 2004; 8(3):139-45.
- Hanselaar AG (2002), Criteria for organized cervical screening programs. Special emphasis on The Netherlandsprogram. Acta Cytol.2002; 46(4): 619-629.
- RijksinstituutvoorVolksgezondheiden Milieu (RIVM). Feasibility study into population screening for bowel cancer Detection of bowel cancer put into practice. 2011. available at https://www.rivm.nl/bibliotheek/rapporten/225082001.pdf
- Kronborg O, Fenger C, Olsen J, Jørgensen OD, Søndergaard O. Randomised study of screening for colorectal cancer with faecal-occult-blood test. Lancet. 1996; 348(9040):1467-71.
- ttps://www.cancer.dk/international/english/screening-colon-cancer-english/прегледана на 10.01.2022
- Høydahl Ø, Edna TH, Xanthoulis A, Lydersen S, Endreseth BH. Long-term trends in colorectal cancer: incidence, localization, and presentation. BMC Cancer. 2020 Nov 10;20(1):1077.
- Mäklin S, Hakama M, Rissanen P, Malila N. Use of hospital resources in the Finnish colorectal cancer screeningprogramme: a randomised health services study. BMJ Open Gastroenterol. 2015;2(1):e000063.
- Colorectal cancer screening – Syöpärekisteri.Protocol forandtestsusedincolorectal-cancerscreening. Available at: https://syoparekisteri.fi/assets/files/2021/11/Protocol-for-and-tests-used-in-colorectal-cancer-screening.pdf
- Pitkäniemi J, Seppä K, Hakama M, et al. Effectiveness of screening for colorectal cancer with a faecal occult-blood test, in Finland BMJ Open Gastroenterology 2015;2:e000034.
- Državni program presejanja in zgodnjega odkrivanja predrakavih sprememb in raka na debelem črevesu in danki, достапна на http://www.program-svit.si/, прегледана на 21.01.2022
- Scepanovic M, Jovanovic O, Keber D, Jovanovic I, Miljus D, Nikolic G, Kovacevic B, Pavlovic A, Dugalic P, Nagorni A, Grgov S, Knezevic S, Milenkovic P, Perisic N, Faivre J. Faecal occult blood screening for colorectal cancer in Serbia: a pilot study. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2017;26(3):195-200.
- SIGN (2003), Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network - Guidelines for the management of colorectal cancer,http://www.sign.ac.uk/pdf/sign67.pdf.
- Council of the European Union (2010), Council conclusions on action against cancer. 3032nd General AffairsCouncil meeting. Brussels, 13 September 2010 Press Office of the Council of the European Union; Brussels, Belgium,Report no. 5021/09.
- European Parliament (2008), European Parliament resolution of 10 April on combating cancer in the enlargedEuropean Union. P6_TA-PROV(2008)0121.
- Commission of the European Communities (2008), Report from the commission to the council, the European Parliament,the European Economic and Social committee and the Committee of the Regions - Implementation of theCouncil Recommendation of 2 December 2003 on cancer screening (2003/878/EC) Brussels, Report no.COM(2008) 882 final.
- von Karsa L, Anttila A, Ronco G, Ponti A, Malila N, Arbyn M, Segnan N, Castillo-Beltran M, Boniol M, Ferlay J, Hery C, Sauvaget C, Voti L &Autier P (2008), Cancer Screening in the European Union. Report on the implementationof the Council Recommendation on Cancer Screening - First Report European Commission, Luxembourg.