- hepatitis B,
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Моника Нелоска, Виктор Исјановски, Игор Исјановски
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Hepatitis B is the world’s most common blood‑borne viral infection, accounting for 2 billion infections, 350 million carriers, and 6 lakh deaths annually. Aim of the paper is to determine the level of knowledge among healthy population in North Macedonia regarding Hepatitis B virus infection. Material and methods: A community‑based cross‑sectional study was undertaken. Questionnaire was administered to 600 healthy individuals, who heard about hepatitis B. Data handled and analyzed by using statistical package SPSS. Results: The profile of those who give the correct answer regarding the cause of hepatitis B that it is a virus are women (65.3%), aged 40 to 49 (42.8%), by nationality are Macedonian, have higher education (52.8%), 92.8% live in urban areas, 74.3% are married, employed (79.2%) and have a moderate monthly income (68.9). About one‑third of the sample said that loss of appetite, diarrhea, nausea/vomiting also associated with hepatitis B. There is a significant difference in knowledge related to early (prodromal) (symptoms such as cold and flu - fever, runny nose, cough) symptoms of hepatitis infection. Only 17.7% give the correct answer that they register, and 81.7% do not. Jaundice is one of the common symptoms of hepatitis, 32.2% give the correct answer, and 25.8% of the symptoms that are present and common are nausea, vomiting and loss of appetite. Conclusions: Important knowledge deficits about the routes of hepatitis B transmission/prevention were identified. Continued efforts should be made to develop and implement hepatitis B educational campaigns/health promotion for these communities.
- Ott JJ, Stevens GA, Groeger J, Wiersma ST. Global epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection: New estimates of age‑specific HBsAg seroprevalence and endemicity. Vaccine 2012;30:2212‑9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.12.116
- Liaw YF. Antiviral therapy of chronic hepatitis B: Opportunities and challenges in Asia. J Hepatol 2009;51:403‑10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2009.04.003
- London WT, McGlynn KA. Liver cancer. In: Scottenfeld D, Fraumeni JF, editors. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention. United Kingdom:Oxford University Press; 2006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195149616.003.0039
- Lok AS, McMahon BJ. Chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology 2007;45:507‑39. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.21513
- de Franchis R, Hadengue A, Lau G, Lavanchy D, Lok A, McIntyre N, et al. EASL International Consensus Conference on hepatitis B 13‑14 September, 2002 Geneva,Switzerland. Consensus statement (long version). J Hepatol 2003;39 Suppl 1:S3‑25.
- National Foundation for Infectious Diseases. Facts about Hepatitis‑B. January, 2012.
- Liaw YF, Leung N, Guan R, Lau GK, Merican I, McCaughan G, et al. Asian‑Pacific consensus statement on the management of chronic hepatitis B: A 2005 update. Liver Int 2005;25:472‑89. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1478-3231.2005.01134.x
- Ray SK. Vaccine preventable diseases. In: Chaturvedi S,Jena TK, editors. Epidemiology in Maternal and Child Health, Preventive Medicine. MME‑101. New Delhi; IGNOU; 2003.p. 40‑66.
- Van Damme P, Kane M, Meheus A. Integration of hepatitis B vaccination into national immunisation programmes. Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board. BMJ 1997;314:1033‑6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.314.7086.1033
- Razi A, Rehman R, Naz S, Ghafoor F, Ullah MA. Knowledge attitude and practices of university students regarding hepatitis B and C. ARPN J Agric Biol Sci 2010;5:38‑43.
- Harapan H, Anwar S, Setiawan AM, Sasmono RT, Study AD. Dengue vaccine acceptance and associated factors in Indonesia: a community-based cross-sectional survey in Aceh. Vaccine. 2016;34(32):3670–5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.05.026
- Harapan H, Anwar S, Bustaman A, Radiansyah A, Angraini P, Fasli R, et al. Modifiable determinants of attitude towards dengue vaccination among healthy inhabitants of Aceh, Indonesia: findings from a community-based survey. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2016;9(11):1092–8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.07.036
- Harapan H, Anwar S, Bustamam A, Radiansyah A, Angraini P, Fasli R, et al. Willingness to pay for a dengue vaccine and its associated determinants in Indonesia: a community based, cross-sectional survey in Aceh. Acta Trop. 2017;166:249–56. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.11.035
- Harapan H, Rajamoorthy Y, Anwar S, Bustamam A, Radiansyah A, Angraini P, et al. Knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding dengue virus infection among inhabitants of Aceh, Indonesia: a cross-sectional study. BMC Infect Dis. 2018;18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-018-3006-z
- Harapan H, Aletta A, Anwar S, Setiawan AM, Maulana R, Wahyuniati N, et al. Healthcare workers' knowledge towards Zika virus infection in Indonesia: a survey in Aceh. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2017;10(2):189–94. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtm.2017.01.018
- Dhimal M, Aryal KK, Dhimal ML, Gautam I, Singh SP, Bhusal CL, Kuch U. Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding dengue fever among the healthy population of Highland and lowland communities in Central Nepal. PLoS One. 2014;9(7). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102028
- Almansour AH, Darwish MA, Wahab MMA. Hepatitis C infection awareness among fourth year medical students at University of Dammam. J Fam Community Med. 2017;24(1):49–54. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/2230-8229.197182
- Harapan H, Alleta A, Anwar S, Setiawan AM, Maulana R, Wahyuniati N, et al. Attitudes towards Zika virus infection among medical doctors in Aceh province, Indonesia. J Infect Public Heal. 2018;11(1):99–104. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2017.06.013
- Rajamoorthy J, Niazlin Mohd T , Subramaniam M, Anwar S, Wagner AL, at al, Knowledge and awareness of hepatitis B among households in Malaysia: a community-based cross-sectional survey. BMC Public Health 2019; 19:47 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-6375-8
- Khamis Almualm Y et al. Knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) about Hepatitis B and C among students of Hadhramout University, Al-Mukalla City, Yemen”. Acta Scientific Medical Sciences 2.7 (2018): 87-95.
- Nguyen TTL, Pham TTH, So S, Hoang THV, Nguyen TTU, Ngo TB, et al. Knowledge, Attitudes and practices toward Hepatitis B virus infection among students of medicine in Vietnam. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Jul 2;18(13):7081. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18137081
- Babakian T, et al. An assessment of HIV/AIDS risk in higher education students in Yerevan, Armenia”. AIDS and Behavior 8.1 (2004): 47-61. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/B:AIBE.0000017525.92015.5d
- Y.-W. Huang and C.-H. Hung, The effect of health education through the internet on university female students’ hepatitis B knowledge and cognition. Journal of Clinical Nursing 2009; 18(23): 3342–3348. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2009.02907.x
- Thompson MJ, Taylor VM, Yasui Y et al. Hepatitis B knowledge and practices among Chinese Canadian Women in Vancouver, British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Public Health 2003; 94 (4): 281–286. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03403606
- Khan A S, Al-Sweilem M, Akturk Z. Knowledge of hepatitis B and vaccination status of some expatriate ethnic groups of blue collar workers in northern Saudi Arabia,” Journal of Family and Community Medicine 2008; 15( 2): 77–83.
- Cheung J, Lee TK, The CZ, Wang C Y M, Kwan W CP, Yoshida EM. Cross-sectional study of hepatitis B awareness among Chinese and Southeast Asian Canadians in the Vancouver-Richmond community. Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology 2005;19 (4): 245–249. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2005/583406
- Lee HO, Lee O-J, Kim S, Hontz I, Warner A. Differences in knowledge of hepatitis B among Korean immigrants in two cities in the Rocky Mountain Region. Asian Nursing Research 2007; 1(3):165–175. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1976-1317(08)60019-5
- Chrusch C, Minuk GY. Public knowledge about hepatitis B-related issues in Korea. Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases 1996; 7 (1): 53–55. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/1996/285074
- Noreen N, Kumar R,Shaikh BT. Knowledge about hepatitis B vaccination among women of childbearing age: a cross-sectional study from a rural district of Punjab, Pakistan. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 2015; 21 (2) 129–133. DOI: https://doi.org/10.26719/2015.21.2.129
- Ul Haq N, Hassali M A, Shafie AA et al. A cross-sectional assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice among Hepatitis-B patients in Quetta, Pakistan. BMC Public Health 2013; 13: 448. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-448
- Mohamed R, Ng CJ, Tong W T, Abidin S Z, Wong L P, Low WY. Knowledge, attitudes and practices among people with chronic hepatitis B attending a hepatology clinic in Malaysia: a cross sectional study. BMC Public Health 2012; 12: 601. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-12-601
- Hajarizadeh B, Wallace J, Richmond J, Ngo N, Enright C. Hepatitis B knowledge and associated factors among people with chronic hepatitis B. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 2015; 39 (6): 563–568.
- Roushan N, Nasiri Toosi M, Meysamie A, Esteghamati A-R, Hajrassuliha H. Hepatitis B knowledge among Iranian adolescents: a national survey. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal 2013; 15 (12),e11558. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5812/ircmj.11558
- A. B. Adeyemi, O. O. Enabor, I. A. Ugwu, F. A. Bello, O. Olayemi. Knowledge of hepatitis B virus infection, access to screening and vaccination among pregnant women in Ibadan, Nigeria. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2013; 33 (2): 155–159. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3109/01443615.2012.711389
- Taylor VM, Jackson JC, Chan N, Kuniyuki A, Yasui Y. Hepatitis B knowledge and practices among Cambodian American women in Seattle, Washington. Journal of Community Health 2002; 27 (3)3: 151–163.
- Taylor VM, Jackson JC, Pineda M, Pham P, Fischer M, Yasui Y. Hepatitis B knowledge among Vietnamese immigrants: implications for prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma. Journal of Cancer Education 2000; 15 (1): 51–55.
- Li H, Liu CJ, Li FQ. The analysis on the hepatitis B awareness and factors influencing of reproductive women in poverty rural areas of Gansu province. Zhongguo Yi Miao He Mian Yi 2009; 15 ( 3): 263–266.
- Ashri NY. Hepatitis B and C knowledge among Saudi dental patients. Saudi Medical Journal 2008; 29 (12): 1785–1790.
- Ahmad A, Sann LM, Rahman HA. Factors associated with knowledge,attitude and practice related to hepatitis B and C among international students of Universiti Putra Malaysia. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:611.
- Pathmanathan H, Lakshmanan P. Assessment of awareness and knowledge of hepatitis B among the residents of Puchong, Malaysia. Trop J Pharm Res. 2014;13(10):1719–24. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v13i10.22
- Lim H, Rashwan H. Awareness of hepatitis A and hepatitis B among residents in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor. Malaysian J Pharm. 2003;1(3):76–85. DOI: https://doi.org/10.52494/TQWM8592
- Yaacob HB, Samaranayake LP. Awareness and acceptance of the hepatitis-B vaccine by dental practitioners in Malaysia. J Oral Pathol Med. 1989;18(4):236–9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0714.1989.tb00770.x
- Hajarizadeh B, Wallace J, Richmond J, Ngo N, Enright C. Hepatitis B knowledge and associated factors among people with chronic hepatitis B.Aust Nz J Publ Heal. 2015;39(6):563–8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1753-6405.12378
- Yau AH, Ford JA, Kwan PW, Chan J, Choo Q, Lee TK, Kwong W, Huang A,Yoshida E. Hepatitis B awareness and knowledge in Asian communities in British Columbia. Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016;2016:4278724. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/4278724
- Wu H, Yim C, Chan A, Ho M, Heathcote J. Sociocultural factors thatpotentially affect the institution of prevention and treatment strategies for hepatitis B in Chinese Canadians. Can J Gastroenterol. 2009;23(1):31–6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2009/608352
- Han Z, Yin Y, Zhang Y, Ehrhardt S, Thio CL, Nelson KE, Bai X, Hou H. Knowledge of and attitudes towards hepatitis B and its transmission frommother to child among pregnant women in Guangdong Province, China. PLoS One. 2017;12(6):e0178671. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0178671
- Ngaira JA, Kimotho J, Mirigi I, Osman S, Ng'ang'a Z, Lwembe R, Ochwoto M. Prevalence, awareness and risk factors associated with hepatitis B infection among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Mbagathi District Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Pan Afr Med J. 2016;24:315. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2016.24.315.9255
- Ganczak M, Dmytrzyk-Danilow G, Korzen M, Drozd-Dabrowska M, Szych Z. Prevalence of HBV infection and knowledge of hepatitis B among patients attending primary care clinics in Poland. J Commun Health. 2016;41(3):635–44. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-015-0139-5
- Wai CT, Mak B, Chua W, Tan MH, Ng S, Cheok A, Wong ML, Lim SG. Misperceptions among patients with chronic hepatitis B in Singapore. World J Gastroentero. 2005;11(32):5002–5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v11.i32.5002
- Taylor VM, Jackson JC, Chan N, Kuniyuki A, Yasui Y. Hepatitis B knowledge and practices among Cambodian American women in Seattle, Washington. J Commun Health. 2002;27(3):151–63. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015229405765
- Elsheikh TA, Balla SA, Abdalla AA, Elgasim MA, Swareldahab Z, Bashir AA. Knowledge, attitude and practice of heath care workers regarding transmission and prevention of hepatitis B virus infection, White Nile State, Sudan. Am J Health Res. 2016;4(2):18–22. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajhr.20160402.11
- Ahmad A, Sann LM, Rahman HA. Factors associated with knowledge, attitude and practice related to hepatitis B and C among international students of University Putra Malaysia. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:611. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3188-5
- Chao J, Chang ET, So SK. Hepatitis B and liver cancer knowledge and practices among healthcare and public health professionals in China: a Cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:98. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-10-98
- Ataei B, Meidani M, Khosravi M, Khorvash F, Akbari M. Knowledge, attitude, and performance of medical staff of teaching healthcare settings about Hepatitis B and C in Isfahan, Iran. Adv Biomed Res. 2014;3:267. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/2277-9175.148249