Vol. 13 No. 2 (2021): Arch Pub Health
Public Health

Аssessment of the epidemiological situation and burden of COVID-19 on global, regional and national level

Aferdita Kurti-Karameta
National Institute of Public Health of Kosovo, Prishtina, Kosovo
Fimka Tozija
Institute of Public Health of Republic of North Macedonia; Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, Faculty of Medicine, Republic of North Macedonia

Published 2021-06-30

Keywords

  • COVID-19,
  • SARS-CoV-2,
  • assessment,
  • , epidemiological situation,
  • burden

How to Cite

1.
Kurti-Karameta A, Tozija F. Аssessment of the epidemiological situation and burden of COVID-19 on global, regional and national level. Arch Pub Health [Internet]. 2021 Jun. 30 [cited 2021 Oct. 24];13(2):1-12. Available from: https://www.id-press.eu/aph/article/view/6004

Abstract

The current pandemic of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Global COVID-19 burden is characterized by a high variability in death rate across countries. Several possible explanations have been proposed, but it is not clear whether this variability is due to a single predominant factor or instead to multiple causes. The aim of this paper was to present and analyze the epidemiological situation and burden of the COVID-19 pandemic in Kosovo compared to other countries in Europe and the world. Material and methods: Public health approach and desk review were applied to present and analyze the trends over time of selected epidemiological indicators for COVID-19 based on multiple sources of data as well as WHO epidata and literature review. The assessment of the epidemiological situation in EU/EEA member states was done using the surveillance data routinely collected by ECDC. Official medical records from the National Institute of Public Health, other relevant health institutions; State Statistical Office and Ministry of Health in Kosovo were used. Results: According to ECDC as of 11 February 2021, 106,472,660 cases of COVID-19 (in accordance with the applied case definitions and testing strategies in the affected countries) have been reported, including 2,323,103 deaths. COVID-19 cases have been reported from: Africa: 3,673,181 cases, Asia: 20,438,608 cases, Europe: 34,681,426 cases, America: 47,620,931 cases; Oceania: 57,809 cases, Others: 705 cases. Deaths have been reported from: Africa 95,128 deaths, Asia 343,886, America 1,107,066, Europe 775,883, Oceania 1,210 and Other 6 deaths. In Kosovo from 13 March 2020 until 15th February 2021 there have been 64,298 cases of COVID- 19 with 1534 deaths. Absolute values of the indicators remain high in all countries in Europe, including those with stable or decreasing trends in these indicators, suggesting that transmission is still wide spread. The epidemic trajectory over the next months will be determined by the balance of four factors, with many different outcomes possible: the continued scale-up of vaccination, declining seasonality, the spread of new variants and increased behaviors that favor COVID-19 transmission. Conclusion: Findings from this paper can help to develop evidence-based policy interventions in Kosovo for risk assessment of COVID-19 and protection of general population and especially vulnerable groups with higher risk from COVID 19.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

  1. COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic. Coronavirus-Worldometer website. https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/. Accessed November 1, 2020.
  2. Burke RM, Midgley CM, Dratch A, Fenstersheib M, Haupt T, Holshue M, et al. Active moni-toring of persons exposed to patients with confirmed COVID19 — United States, January–February 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020.
  3. Ong SWX, Tan YK, Chia PY, Lee TH, Ng OT, Wong MSY, et al. Air, Surface Environmental, and Personal Protective Equipment Contamination by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Co-ronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) From a Symptomatic Patient. JAMA. 2020. Epub 2020/03/05.
  4. Lauer SA, Grantz KH, Bi Q, Jones FK, Zheng Q, Meredith HR, et al. The incubation period of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) from publicly reported confirmed cases: estimation and application. Ann Intern Med 2020. Epub 2020/03/10.
  5. Liu Y, Yan LM, Wan L, Xiang TX, Le A, Liu JM, et al. Viral dynamics in mild and severe cas-es of COVID-19. Lancet Infect Dis 2020. Epub 2020/03/23.
  6. Yee J, Kim W, Han JM et al. Clinical manifestations and perinatal outcomes of pregnant women with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Rep 2020;10:18126
  7. Ceccarelli M, Berretta M, Venanzi Rullo E, Nunnari G, Cacopardo B. Differences and similari-ties between Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoronaVirus (CoV) and SARS-CoV-2. Would a rose by another name smell as sweet? Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2020;24(5):2781-2783.
  8. Centers for Disease Control. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/symptoms-testing/symptoms.html Accessed on 1 September 2020.
  9. Wathelet M, Duhem S, Valva G et al. Factors associated with mental health disorders among university students in france confined during the COVID-19 pandemic.JAMA Network Open; October 23, 2020).
  10. Reynolds M. What is coronavirus and how close is it to becoming a pandemic?. Wired UK. ISSN 1357-0978.
  11. Bigiani L, Bigiani S, Bigiani A. How to minimize the impact of pandemic events: lessons from the COVID-19 crisis. Int J Health Policy Manag 2020;9(11):469–474.
  12. Stockman LJ, Bellamy R, Garner P. SARS: systematic review of treatment effects. PLoS Med 2006;3(9):e343.
  13. Jeyanathan M, Afkhami S, Smaill F. et al. Immunological considerations for COVID-19 vaccine strategies. Nat Rev Immunol 2020; 20:615–632.
  14. https://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/health-emergencies/coronavirus-covid-19 Accessed on 31st October 2020.
  15. https://www.burden-eu.net/news/latest-news/212-publication-of-a-burden-eu-guide-on-calculating-covid-19-dalys?idU=1 Accessed on 21st October 2020.
  16. Thonmoy Dey, Ankit Sinha.Ethnicity and COVID-19 - A commentary on “World Health Oga-nization declares global emergency: A review of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19)” (Int J Surg 2020;76:71-6).
  17. John Hopkins.The Center for Systems Science and Engineering. Available at https://www.arcgis.com/apps/opsdashboard/index.html#/bda7594740fd40299423467b48e9ecf6 Accessed on 25 January 2021.
  18. ECDC. Available at https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/geographical-distribution-2019-ncov-cases Accessed on 3rd February 2021.
  19. WHO. Available at https://www.who.int/director-general/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-covid-19---12-october-2020 Accessed on 31st October 2020.
  20. ECDC. COVID-19 Country overview. Available at https://covid19-country-overviews.ecdc.europa.eu/ Accessed on 3rd February 2021.
  21. Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. COVID-19 Results Briefing WHO. European Re-gion. (Available at https://covid19.healthdata.org/global?view=total-deaths&tab=trend Ac-cessed on 28th February 2021)
  22. https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/country/macedonia/ Accessed on 26th January 2021.
  23. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2020_coronavirus_pandemic_in_Kosovo Accessed on 10th Sep-tember 2020.
  24. https://exit.al/en/2021/01/26/kosovo-covid-19-update-26-january-5-deaths-288
  25. OECD. The COVID-19 Crisis in Kosovo. 31st January 2021. (Available at https://www.oecd.org/south-east-europe/COVID-19-Crisis-in-Kosovo.pdf Accessed on Febru-ary 5th)
  26. ECDC. Available at:https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/geographical-distribution-2019-ncov-cases Accessed on February 5th 2021.
  27. SOM. Returning to theworkplace after theCOVID-19 lockdownA toolkit. (Available at https://alama.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/Returning_to_the_workplace_COVID-19_toolkit_FINAL.pdf Accessed on 28th February 2021)