Toxic elements in rice, wheat flour and wheat flour products from the macedonian market
- atomic absorption spectrometry, toxic elements, rice, wheat flour, flour products, all-day meal.
How to Cite
The safety of the cereal products is of high nutritional and toxicological interest, since the cereal industry and its products have a big economic and social importance worldwide. In this pilot research the presence and the content of toxic trace elements arsenic, cadmium and lead in three samples of rice: 11,67+5,69mg/kg, 25,67+6,43mg/kg, 47,67+18,01mg/kg for As, Cd and Pb respectively, wheat flour: 7+5mg/kg, 9+1,73mg/kg, 69,92+16,92mg/kg and flour products (bread: 9,33+2,08mg/kg, 6,67+0,58mg/kg, 36+3,6mg/kg, pasta: 1,61+1,15mg/kg, 2,67+2,08mg/kg, 30+7mg/kg and tea biscuits: 4,67+4,04mg/kg, 1,33+0,58mg/kg, 53+9,64mg/kg for As, Cd and Pb respectively) produced by three different manufacturers from Macedonia was determined by applying the hydride generation and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with wet digestion. In this research the contribution to the average daily intake for toxic elements through daily intake of cereal and cereal products (20% of the all-day meal) has been determined. The contribution of As (9,86%), Cd (10,02%) and Pb (11,39%) compared to the average daily intake and the PTDI was low, which indicates that these products are safe for consumption concerning the examined toxic elements. The levels of the toxic elements in the samples of Macedonian rice, wheat flour, bread, pasta and tea biscuits are comparable to those obtained from various parts of the world and their consumption does not pose any health risks.
- Beckett W. S, Nordberg G. F, Clarkson T. W. Routes of exposure, dose and metabolism of metals. Sevier Amsterdam-Tokyo. 2007: 39-76.
- АTSDR Toxicological Profile for Arsenic ATSDR. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. DHHS 2000: 132.
- Kristiforović-Ilić M. Komunalna higiena. Novi Sad: Prometej; 1998. ISBN 86-7639-366-4
- Nordberg G. F, Fowler B. A, Nordberg M. Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals. Third Edition. Burlington: Academic Press; 2007. Во: WHO. Human biomonitoring: facts and figures. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe. 2015.
- Andersen H. R, Nielsen J. B, Grandjean P. Toxicologic evidence of developmental neurotoxicity of environmental chemicals. Toxicology. Odense, Denmark: Department of Environmental Medicine, Odense University; 2000: 144(1-3):121-7.
- Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. Oxford University Press; 2011. ISBN 978-0-19-960563-7.
- Caruso J.A. et al. Group assessment: Elemental speciation. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2003: 56: 32-44. doi:10.1016/S0147-6513(03)00048-4.
- WHO, CINDI dietary guide, 2000. ISBN 92 890 1183 1
- FAO/WHO Technical Report Series 776 Evaluation of Certain Food Contaminants: A Sixty-fourth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives JECFA. 2006.
- FAO/WHO Technical Report Series 930 Evaluation of Certain Food Contaminants: A Sixty-fourth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives JECFA 33/27. 2011a.
- FAO/WHO Technical Report Series 896 Evaluation of Certain Food Contaminants: A Sixty-fourth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives JECFA 53/81. 2011b.
- Barbosa R, Silvade Paula E, Paulelli A, Moore A, Oliveira Souza J, Batista B, Campiglia A, Barbosa Jr F. Recognition of organic rice samples based on trace elements and support vector machines. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 2016 (45): 95-100 doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2015.09.010
- Правилник за општи барања за безбедност на храната во однос на максимални нивоа на одделни компоненти, Сл.В. РМ бр.102/2013
- Правилник за општи барања за безбедност на храната Сл. В. на РМ бр. 118/2005
- Uredba komisije (EU) o izmjeni Uredbe (EZ) br. 1881/2006 o utvrđivanju najvećih dopuštenih količina određenih kontaminanata u hrani, SLUŽBENI LIST EUROPSKE UNIJE L 111/3, br. 420/2011
- Chaleshtori FS, Kopaei MR, Chaleshtori RS. A review of heavy metals in rice (Oryza sativa) of Iran. Toxin Review. 2016: 36 (2): 147-53.
- DOI: 10.1080/15569543.2016.1252932
- Ekholm P, Reinivuo H, Mattila P, Pakkala H, KoponenJ, Happonen A, Hellstrom J, Ovaskainen M. Changes in the mineral and trace element contents of cereals, fruits and vegetables in Finland. J of Food Composition and Analysis. 2007: 20: 487–95
- Brizio P, Benedetto A,Squadrone S,Curcio A,Pellegrino M, Ferrero M, Abete M. Heavy metals and essential elements in Italian cereals. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part B Surveillance. 2016 (9): 4: 261-7.doi:10.1080/19393210.2016.1209572
- Adedire C,Adeyemi J,Paulelli A, Da CunhaMartins-Jr.A, Ileke K, Segura F, De Oliveira-Souza V, Batista B, Barbosa Jr F. Toxic and essential elements in Nigerian rice and estimation of dietary intake through rice consumption. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part B Surveillance. 2015 (8): 4: 271-6. doi:10.1080/19393210.2015.1085101
- Pinto E, Almeidab A, Ferreiraa I. Essential and non-essential/toxic elements in rice available in the Portuguese and Spanish markets. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 2016 (48): 81-7 doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2016.02.008
- Jorhem L, Åstrand C, Sundström B, Baxter M, Stokes P, Lewis J. Elements in rice from the Swedish market: Part 1. Cadmium, lead and arsenic (total and inorganic). Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A. 2008 (25): 3: 284-92. doi:10.1080/02652030701474219. 2008a.
- Jawad I, Allafaji S. The levels of Trace Metals Contaminants in Wheat Grains, Flours and Breads in Iraq. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 2012(10): 6: 88-92.ISSN 1991-8178